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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (65):
1

What does long term forward neck posture lead to?

Long term muscle strain
disc herniation
Pinched nerves

2

For every inch of forward head posture, the weight of the head increases by _____.

10 lbs

3

Loss of cervical curve stretches the spinal cord _______cm and can cause _____.

5-7
disease

4

90% of stimulation and nutrition to the brain is generated by:

movement of the spine

5

Forward head posture will rob energy from your brain, causing problems in:

Thinking
Metabolism
Immune System
Proprioception

6

Some diseases caused by long term forward neck posture:

Lung and CV diseases, as well as GI

7

A neuron is composed of:

Soma
Perikarion
Dendrites
Axon

8

Other name for myelin

Neurilemma

9

2 nerves involved in a synapse is called a ______, while more than 2 nerves involved is called a ______.

Monosynapse
Polysynapse

10

Nerve impulses from periphery nerves to the CNS. Mostly sensory

Afferent nerves

11

Nerve impulses from the CNS to the periphery nerves . Mostly motor

Efferent Nerves

12

Network of interconnecting neurons connecting the afferent and efferent nerves

Interneurons

13

Medulla Spinalis, AKA

Spinal cord

14

Where does the spinal cord begin and end?

Begins at the foramen magnum, ends at the conus medularis

15

2 major enlargements in the spine

cervical and lumbar

16

largest of the 2 enlargements

cervical

17

Cervical enlargement runs from __-__. Gives rise to the _____ plexus. THe largest circumference is located at _____.

C4-T1
brachial
C5/6.

18

Lumbar enlargement runs from __-__. Gives rise to the _____ and _____ plexus, and the ____ ____.
Largest circumference is at _____.

T9-L2 (conus medularis is)
Lumbar and sacral plexus and the Cauna Equina
T12

19

Nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

Ganglion

20

Nerve cell bodies inside the IVF

Dorsal root ganglion

21

Nerve C1 arises between ____ and ____.

occiput and atlas

22

Nerve C8 arises between ___and ___

C7 and T1

23

Other than C-1 or C-8, where do all other nerves arise from?

Below their respective vertebra

24

Purpose of the meningies

To surround, protect, and stabilize the CNS

25

The 3 layers of meningies consists of:

Dura Mater
Arachnoid
Pia Mater

26

Space that contains fat, loose CT, and extensive epidural venous plexus (Batson's Plexus)

Epidural space

27

The Dura Mater is very _____ (weak/tough) and continues to ____. Is attaches to the posterior aspect of the ____ ____ of __ (location). It also attaches to the PLL by means of ____ _____.

S-2
Tough
foramen magnum of C2/C3
Hoffman's ligaments

28

Very small potential space between the dura mater and arachnoid. Has interstitial fluid.

Subdural space

29

Meningial layer. Middle layer, spider like. Completely avascular. Continues to S2

Arachnoid

30

Space between Pia mater and arachnoid that cerbrospinal fluid

Subarachnoid space

31

The pia mater is very ____ (thin/thick). It has 2 parts called ____ the inner part and ___ the outer part. Both parts, surround the ____ ____ and the ______ _____ to the IVF

Thin.
Pia-glia and epi-pia
spinal cord and spinal nerves to the IVF

32

Avascular layer of the pia mater. adheres to the spinal cord

Pia-Glia

33

Vascular layer of the pia mater. Attaches to the dura mater via denticulate ligaments

Epi-pia

34

Name for both pia mater and arachnoid together:

Leptomeninges

35

Fibrous bands of epi-pia that go through the arachnoid, and attach to the dura mater.

Denticulate ligament

36

The denticulate ligament has ____ points of attachment on either side.

22

37

Purpose of the denticulate ligament

To stabilize the meningies, keeping them from folding on top of each other

38

Central ligament of the spinal cord/coccygeal ligament. Anchors the spinal cord in place, keeping it from moving around.

Filum terminale

39

Filum terminale extends from ____ to the _____ segment

conus medularis
1st coccygeal

40

The filum terminale is made up of all the meningeal layers until __, where is will only be made up of the ____ ___ to the coccyx.

S2
Pia Mater

41

Area of unmyelinated nerves
where cell bodies and synapses are

Gray matter

42

Area of myelinated nerves

white matter

43

Motor lesions that involve the CNS

Upper Motor Leisons

44

Spastic paralysis
inability to move an extremity due to spastic muscles and increased deep tendon reflexes

Hyper-reflexia

45

Moton neuron lesions that involve the PNS only

Lower motor neuron lesions

46

Flaccid paralysis
Loss of muscle tone and absence of tendon reflexes

Hypo-reflexia/A-reflexia

47

There are ___ pairs of spinal nerves. ___ of these exit through a bony foramen

31
29

48

Each spinal nerve is formed by the convergence of:

A dorsal root and ventral root within the IVF

49

Distal to the IVF, the spinal nerve divides into these 2 parts:

Dorsal ramus (rami, posterior primary division, PPD)
Ventral ramus (rami, anterior primary division APD)

50

This ramus innervates the skin and deep muscles of the back and neck

Dorsal Ramus

51

This ramus innervates the anterior and lateral aspect of the trunk and extremities

Ventral ramus

52

There are __ Pairs of cervical nerves,
__ pairs of thoracic nerves
___ pairs of lumbar nerves
____ pairs of sacral nerves
and ____ pairs of coccygeal nerves

8
12
5
5
1

53

The cervicla plexus is formed by the ______ rami of these nerves:

Ventral
c1-c4

54

Plexus that supplies the cutaneous innervation, to the dorsal lateral part of the head neck and shoulders , as well as the deep cervical muscles, traps, SCM

Cervical plexus

55

What does the brachial pluxes supply to?
What is it formed by?

Upper extremities
Ventral Rami of C5-T1

56

Brachial plexus track:
Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer

5 Roots
3 trunks
2 divisions
3 cords
Branches

57

Ascending sympathetic trunk is supplied by:

All cervical nerve roots down to T6

58

3 cervical ganglions of the ascending sympathetic trunk and where they are

inferior cervical ganglion- C7-T1
Middle Cerical Gangion- C5-C6
Superior Cervical Ganglion- C2-C3

59

Ganglion anterior to the sacrococcygeal junction. The most caudal ganglion of the sympathetic trunk

Ganglion of IMPAR

60

Plexus formed by ventral rami of L1-L4. Supplies lower extremities

Lumbar plexus

61

Name the location for the following:
A. Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
B. Sacral plexus
C. Sciatic Nerve made of _____________

A. L-2 and L-3
B. L4-S5
C. L-4, 5, S-1, 2 (some S-3); Common Peroneal & Tibial nerve

62

Thigh pain, involves L2-L3 nerves. Sensory disturbances (pain, increased sensation, lack of sensation in anterolateral thigh)

Meralgia Parathetica

63

Dorsal Roots are
Ventral Roots are

Afferent fibers (Sensory)
Efferent fibers (Motor)

64

Dorsal & Ventral branches formed at posterior/anterior division L2-L4 respectfully


Femoral & Obturator Nerve

65

Primarily arise from L2, L3, L4 nerve roots

Lumbar Plexus