Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (65):
What does long term forward neck posture lead to?
Long term muscle strain
For every inch of forward head posture, the weight of the head increases by _____.
Loss of cervical curve stretches the spinal cord _______cm and can cause _____.
90% of stimulation and nutrition to the brain is generated by:
movement of the spine
Forward head posture will rob energy from your brain, causing problems in:
Some diseases caused by long term forward neck posture:
Lung and CV diseases, as well as GI
A neuron is composed of:
Other name for myelin
2 nerves involved in a synapse is called a ______, while more than 2 nerves involved is called a ______.
Nerve impulses from periphery nerves to the CNS. Mostly sensory
Nerve impulses from the CNS to the periphery nerves . Mostly motor
Network of interconnecting neurons connecting the afferent and efferent nerves
Medulla Spinalis, AKA
Where does the spinal cord begin and end?
Begins at the foramen magnum, ends at the conus medularis
2 major enlargements in the spine
cervical and lumbar
largest of the 2 enlargements
Cervical enlargement runs from __-__. Gives rise to the _____ plexus. THe largest circumference is located at _____.
Lumbar enlargement runs from __-__. Gives rise to the _____ and _____ plexus, and the ____ ____.
Largest circumference is at _____.
T9-L2 (conus medularis is)
Lumbar and sacral plexus and the Cauna Equina
Nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
Nerve cell bodies inside the IVF
Dorsal root ganglion
Nerve C1 arises between ____ and ____.
occiput and atlas
Nerve C8 arises between ___and ___
C7 and T1
Other than C-1 or C-8, where do all other nerves arise from?
Below their respective vertebra
Purpose of the meningies
To surround, protect, and stabilize the CNS
The 3 layers of meningies consists of:
Space that contains fat, loose CT, and extensive epidural venous plexus (Batson's Plexus)
The Dura Mater is very _____ (weak/tough) and continues to ____. Is attaches to the posterior aspect of the ____ ____ of __ (location). It also attaches to the PLL by means of ____ _____.
foramen magnum of C2/C3
Very small potential space between the dura mater and arachnoid. Has interstitial fluid.
Meningial layer. Middle layer, spider like. Completely avascular. Continues to S2
Space between Pia mater and arachnoid that cerbrospinal fluid
The pia mater is very ____ (thin/thick). It has 2 parts called ____ the inner part and ___ the outer part. Both parts, surround the ____ ____ and the ______ _____ to the IVF
Pia-glia and epi-pia
spinal cord and spinal nerves to the IVF
Avascular layer of the pia mater. adheres to the spinal cord
Vascular layer of the pia mater. Attaches to the dura mater via denticulate ligaments
Name for both pia mater and arachnoid together:
Fibrous bands of epi-pia that go through the arachnoid, and attach to the dura mater.
The denticulate ligament has ____ points of attachment on either side.
Purpose of the denticulate ligament
To stabilize the meningies, keeping them from folding on top of each other
Central ligament of the spinal cord/coccygeal ligament. Anchors the spinal cord in place, keeping it from moving around.
Filum terminale extends from ____ to the _____ segment
The filum terminale is made up of all the meningeal layers until __, where is will only be made up of the ____ ___ to the coccyx.
Area of unmyelinated nerves
where cell bodies and synapses are
Area of myelinated nerves
Motor lesions that involve the CNS
Upper Motor Leisons
inability to move an extremity due to spastic muscles and increased deep tendon reflexes
Moton neuron lesions that involve the PNS only
Lower motor neuron lesions
Loss of muscle tone and absence of tendon reflexes
There are ___ pairs of spinal nerves. ___ of these exit through a bony foramen
Each spinal nerve is formed by the convergence of:
A dorsal root and ventral root within the IVF
Distal to the IVF, the spinal nerve divides into these 2 parts:
Dorsal ramus (rami, posterior primary division, PPD)
Ventral ramus (rami, anterior primary division APD)
This ramus innervates the skin and deep muscles of the back and neck
This ramus innervates the anterior and lateral aspect of the trunk and extremities
There are __ Pairs of cervical nerves,
__ pairs of thoracic nerves
___ pairs of lumbar nerves
____ pairs of sacral nerves
and ____ pairs of coccygeal nerves
The cervicla plexus is formed by the ______ rami of these nerves:
Plexus that supplies the cutaneous innervation, to the dorsal lateral part of the head neck and shoulders , as well as the deep cervical muscles, traps, SCM
What does the brachial pluxes supply to?
What is it formed by?
Ventral Rami of C5-T1
Brachial plexus track:
Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer
Ascending sympathetic trunk is supplied by:
All cervical nerve roots down to T6
3 cervical ganglions of the ascending sympathetic trunk and where they are
inferior cervical ganglion- C7-T1
Middle Cerical Gangion- C5-C6
Superior Cervical Ganglion- C2-C3
Ganglion anterior to the sacrococcygeal junction. The most caudal ganglion of the sympathetic trunk
Ganglion of IMPAR
Plexus formed by ventral rami of L1-L4. Supplies lower extremities
Name the location for the following:
A. Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve
B. Sacral plexus
C. Sciatic Nerve made of _____________
A. L-2 and L-3
C. L-4, 5, S-1, 2 (some S-3); Common Peroneal & Tibial nerve
Thigh pain, involves L2-L3 nerves. Sensory disturbances (pain, increased sensation, lack of sensation in anterolateral thigh)
Dorsal Roots are
Ventral Roots are
Afferent fibers (Sensory)
Efferent fibers (Motor)
Dorsal & Ventral branches formed at posterior/anterior division L2-L4 respectfully
Femoral & Obturator Nerve