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Flashcards in [Fletcher] Book Cards Deck (21)
1

Define: Regression to the Mean

Initial testing would give extreme values, yet normalize when tested again

2

Define: Risk Factor

Characteristics associated with an increased chance of becoming diseased

3

Exposure to risk factors can be described as being? (2)

Acute
Chronic

4

Define: Long Latency

Long period between exposure to manifestation of the disease

5

Main importance of risk factors

Predict the occurrence of disease

6

[T/F] Presence of a strong risk factor will mean that an individual is very likely to get the disease

F

7

Risk factor that does not cause disease

Marker

8

What is the best predictor of future major disease?

Existing minor disease

9

Most risk studies are what kind of studies?

Observational Studies

Specifically cohort studies or case control studies

10

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Life expectancy for people aged 70

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Age

Assess effect of: Age

11

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Tuberculosis rates for people born in 1910

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Date of Birth

Assess effect of: Calendar Time

12

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Lung cancer in people who smoke

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Exposure

Assess effect of: Risk Factor

13

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Survival rate for patients with Breast Cancer

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Disease

Assess effect of: Prognosis

14

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Reduction in incidence of pneumonia after pneumococcal vaccination

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Preventive Intervention

Assess effect of: Prevention

15

[Characteristic in Common of Cohort]

Treatment in survival for patients with Hodgkin's disease given combination chemotherapy

What is the cohort used to assess the effect of?

Therapeutic Intervention

Assess effect of: Treatment

16

This type of study is assembled in the present and followed into the future

Concurrent Cohort Study

17

This type of study is identified from past records and followed forward from that time up to the present

Historical Cohort Study

18

Most important scientific disadvantage of observational studies

Subject to a great many more potential biases than any other experiment

19

Formula: Relative Risk

Incidence in Exposed Persons / Incidence in Nonexposed Persons

20

When is attributable risk more useful as an indicator compared to relative risk?

In most clinical situations, attributable risk is more meaningful since it gives the actual additional probability of disease

21

When is relative risk more useful as an indicator compared to attributable risk?

More useful for expressing the strength of a causal relationship