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Most stage-based theories of development focus primarily on:
a) The continuity of development
b) The discontinuity of development
c) Persistence of inherent personalty characteristics
d) The influence of context on development

b) The discontinuity of development


The common practice of using "time-out" with young children is a direct application of:
a) Operant conditioning
b) Classical conditioning
c) Separation-individualization
d) Maturational reinforcement

a) Operant conditioning


Good communication between families, schools, and primary care providers is an example of which ecological concept?
a) Microsystem
b) Mesosystem
c) Exosystem
d) Macrosystem

b) Mesosystem


Which of the following findings would be most likely associated with asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation?
a) Weight, length, and head circumference ranging from 3rd to 5th percentile
b) Heavy maternal smoking throughout pregnancy
c) Weight at 3rd percentile and length at 25th
d) Gestational diabetes

c) Weight at 3rd percentile and length at 25th


Early reflexive responses that are not related to survival include all but:
a) Babinski
b) Moro
c) Swimming
d) Rooting

d) Rooting


The most likely weight of a one-year-old child whose weight at birth was 6 1/2 pounds would be:
a) 19-20 pounds
b) 13-14 pounds
c) 25-26 pounds
d) impossible to estimate

a) 19-20 pounds


One of the major psychosocial tasks of infancy is:
a) Development of secure attachment
b) Separation-individualization
c) Symbiosis
d) Regulation

a) Development of secure attachment


Which developmental theory best explains the multifactorial etiology of failure-to-thrive?
a) Organismic-maturational theory
b) Social learning theory
c) Transactional theory
d) Psychoanalytic theory

c) Transactional theory


Most healthy infants are able to reach, grasp, and hold onto a rattle or other small toy by about:
a) 2 months
b) 6 months
c) 8 months
d) 10 months

b) 6 months


The pincer grasp is a fine motor skill that involves the ability to pick up a small object such as a raisin or piece of cereal with the thumb and forefinger that is usually mastered around:
a) 4 months
b) 6 months
c) 9 months
d) 16 months

c) 9 months


You would be concerned about the language development of a child who:
a) Repeats simple phrases at 32 months
b) Stutters when excited or tired at 42 months
c) Has a vocabulary of 10 words at 12 months
d) Pronounces words that are not understandable at 36 months

b) stutters when excited or tired at 42 months


The most common temperamental profile is:
a) Easy
b) Difficult
c) Slow-to-warm-up
d) Intermediate

a) Easy


The underlying emotion of an insecurely attached (avoidant) relationship is:
a) Ambivalence
b) Deprivation
c) Anger
d) Conditional love

c) Anger


The stage of cognitive development that Piaget described as characteristic of the way preschoolers think is the:
a) Preoperational stage
b) Mental combinations stage
c) Tertiary circular function stage
d) Sensorimotor stage

a) Preoperational stage


A preschool boy whose parents have separated and are beginning divorce procedures:
a) May think that he caused the divorce by misbehaving
b) Should not be told of the impending divorce until the parents are sure of their decision
c) Is likely to experience gender identity confusion
d) Should be able to make a decision about which parent he prefers living with

a) May think he caused the divorce by misbehaving


Which behavior would you expect to decrease during the preschool years?
a) Rough-and-tumble play
b) Instrumental aggression
c) Hostile aggression
d) Cooperative play

b) Instrumental aggression


A preschool child who says that the sky is blue because it is his favorite color is illustrating the concept of:
a) Symbolic thinking
b) Egocentrism
c) Centration
d) Imaginary audience

b) Egocentrism


Which of the following strategies would not be appropriate to include as part of your management of a 9 year old boy who is obese?
a) Referral to a nutritionist for weight reduction plan
b) Increase physical exercise
c) Behavior modification strategies to deal with stress and/or reinforce treatment plan
d) involve family in management progream

a) Referral to nutritionist for weight reduction plan


Which of the following issues or concepts is relevant to the school-aged child?
a) Operational thinking
b) Initiative
c) Concrete operations
d) Separation-individualism

c) Concrete operations


The first physical sign indicating the onset of female puberty is:
a) Sparsely distributed fine, pale pubic hairs
b) Breast buds
c) Menarche
d) Peak height velocity

b) Breast buds


Which of the following findings would be helpful in distinguishing obesity vs. large body frame in an adolescent who is concerned with her weight?
a) Tricep skinfold measurement
b) Weight for height ratio
c) Body Mass Index
d) Percent of ideal body weight

c) Body Mass Index


The most common form of child abuse seen in pediatric primary care is:
a) Burns
b) Fractures
c) Soft tissue injuries
d) Shaken baby syndrome

c) Soft tissue injuries


A differential diagnosis for child abuse would include all of the following except:
a) Birth marks
b) Unintentional injury
c) Inadequate parenting
d) Prader-Willi syndrome

d) Prader-Willi syndrome


Which of the following symptoms are not typical of a child with ADHD?
a) Easily distracted
b) difficulty playing quietly
c) Doesn't follow directions
d) Frequently angry and resentful

d) Frequently angry and resentful


Which of the following clinical findings would not suggest an eating disorder with purging component?
a) Sore throat
b) Brittle nails
c) Constipation
d) Finger calluses

b) Brittle nails


Which of the following situations does not necessarily warrant immediate mental health assessment and/or referral?
a) 13 yo girl who has been "down" for the last month with varied somatic complaints
b) 9 yo boy whose parents recently separated and filed for a divorce and seems to be doing well
c) 16 yo girl who has a history of long-standing depression but seems to be doing well in school
d) 15 yo boy who expresses suicidal thoughts

b) 9 yo boy whose parents recently separated and filed for a divorce and seems to be doing well


Which adolescent would be at greatest risk for developing anorexia?
a) 12 yo female who just had her first period
b) 14 yo gymnast
c) 16 yo male runner
d) 18 yo female college student

b) 14 yo gymnast


Which of the following substances is associated with pupillary constriction?
a) Amphetamines
b) LSD
c) Heroin
d) Nicotine

c) Heroin


A risk factor that is common to many psychosocial pediatric problems including failure to thrive, conduct or oppositional disorders, and childhood depression is:
a) Maternal depression or other psychiatric disorder
b) Substance abuse
c) Prematurity
d) History of sexual abuse

a) Maternal depression or other psychiatric disorder


Which of the following diagnoses is not more common among males?
b) conduct disorders
c) Suicide
d) FTT

d) FTT