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Flashcards in Head Deck (73):
1

Excluding the auditory ossicles, how many bones form the skull?

22 bones

2

How many bones form the neurocranium?

8 bones

3

What bones form the neurocranium?

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

4

How many bones form the facial skeleton?

14 bones

5

What bones form the facial skeleton?

Mandible
Vomer
Nasal
Maxilla
Lacrimal
Inferior nasal concha
Palatine
Zygomatic

6

What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints joints based on Latin groupings?

Suture
Gomphosis
Schindylesis
Syndesmosis

7

What were the five types of suture based on Latin groupings?

Serrate
Denticulate
Limbous
Squamous
Harmonia

8

What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?

Sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification

9

What are the characteristics of sutura notha (false sutures)?

Sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification

10

What were the ossifications of sutura vera (true sutures) based on Latin groupings?

Serrate
Denticulate
Limbous

11

What were the classifications of sutura notha (false sutures) based on Latin groupings?

Squamous
Harmonia

12

What are the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?

Cruciate suture made of the intermaxillary, interpalatine, palato-maxillary sutures

13

What are the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?

Sphenoid-ethmoid-vomer articulation
Palatine-maxila-vomer articulation

14

What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?

Maxilla - root of tooth
Mandible - root of tooth

15

What are the five views of the skull called?

Norma verticalis
Norma frontalis
Norma occiptalis
Norma lateralis
Norma basalis

16

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the frontal bone with both parietal bones?

Anterior fontanelle

17

What is the posterior fontanelle?

Diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones

18

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones?

Posterior fontanelle

19

What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at the front of the skull?

Piriform aperture

20

What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?

Canine eminence

21

What forms the bullet-like chin?

Large mental protuberance

22

What forms the indented chin?

Well developed bilateral mental tubercles
Slight mental protuberance

23

What is the tip of the external occipital protuberance called?

Inion

24

What bones form the pterion?

Parietal
Temporal
Sphenoid
Frontal

25

What points on the skull are used to measure the skull size?

Nasion
Vertex
Inion
Gnathion

26

What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?

Nasion
Vertex
Inion

27

The olfactory nerve exits the cranial vault via what opening?

Cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

28

What passes through the formen cecum?

Emissary vein

29

What is the anterior boundary of the middle cranial fossa?

Lesser wings of sphenoid
Anterior clinoid processes of sphenoid
Sphenoidal jugum of sphenoid

30

What are the parts of the sella turcica?

Anterior clinoid processes of sphenoid
Sphenoidal jugum of sphenoid
Posterior clinoid processes of sphenoid
Dorsum sella of sphenoid
Hypophyseal fossa of sphenoid

31

What neuronal structure is located in front of the hypophysis cerebri or pituitary?

Optic chiasmata

32

What are the contents of the optic canal?

Optic nerve
Ophthalmic arerty

33

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

Ophthalmic veins
Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve
Abducent nerve

34

Which single opening will allow the exit of the greatest number of cranial nerves?

Superior orbital fissure

35

What are the contents of the foramen rotundum?

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve Vb)

36

What will the foramen ovale communicate with?

Middle cranial fossa
Infratemporal region

37

What are the contents of the foramen ovale?

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (Vc)
Lesser petrosal branch of glossopharyngeal nerve

38

What will the foramen spinosum communicate with?

Middle cranial fossa
Infratemporal region

39

What are the contents of the foramen spinosum?

Nervus spinosus from mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
Middle meningeal artery

40

What will the foramen lacerum communicate with in the living person?

Crosses between parts of the middle cranial fossa; not a major exit from the skull

41

What are the contents of the foramen lacerum?

Internal cartotid artery
Carotid sympathetic nerve plexus
Venous plexus

42

What are the contents of the hiatus for the greater (superifical) petrosal nerve?

Greater (superficial) petrosal nerve branch of facial nerve

43

What will the vidian cana/pterygoid canal communicate with?

Middle cranial fossa
Pterygopalatine fossa

44

What opening allows a branch of cranial nerve VII to enter the pterygopalatine fossa from the middle cranial fossa?

Vidian canal/pterygoid canal

45

What are the contents of the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve?

Lesser petrosal nerve branch of the tympanic plexus from the glossopharyngeal nerve

46

How will the lesser petrosal nerve typically exit the middle cranial fossa?

Foramen ovale

47

What will the foramen ovale communicate with?

Middle cranial fossa
Infratemporal region

48

What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?

Tentorium cerebelli

49

What part of the cerebellum occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

None; the tentorium cerebelli separates the cerebelllum into a space above the posterior cranial fossa

50

What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla oblongata

51

What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?

Cranial nerves VII (facial) & VIII (vestibulocochlear)
Nervus intermedius nerve of Wrisberg/sensory root of VII and motor root of VII
Vestibular & cochlear root of VIII
Internal auditory/internal labyrinthine artery and vein

52

What are the contents of the jugular foramen?

Jugular bulb
Inferior petrosal sinus
Tympanic body/tympanic glomus or jugular body/jugular glomus
Cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), XI (spinal accessory)

53

What is the jugular bulb?

Venous expansion between the sigmoid dural venous sinus and the internal jugular vein

54

What is the function of the jugular body/jugular glomus?

Chemoreceptive organ that monitors hypoxia, hypercapnia and increases hydrogen ions

55

What will the hypoglossal canal communicate with?

Posterior cranial fossa
Neck

56

What can the five layers of the scalp spell?

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose connective tissue
Periosteum

57

What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?

Internal carotid artery branches
External carotid artery branches

58

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?

Ophthalmic nerve
Maxillary nerve
Mandibular nerve

59

Which ventral rami nerves and cord levels or origin supply the scalp?

Greater auricular nerve - C2 & C3 ventral rami branches
Lesser occipital nerve - C2 (C3) ventral rami branches

60

Which dorsal ramus nerve branch supplies the scalp?

Greater occipital nerve - C2 & C3 communicating ramus

61

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?

Orbicularis oris
Procerus
Risorius

62

What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?

Branchial efferent (BE)

63

Most of the seventh cranial will exit the skull via what opening?

Stylomastoid foramen

64

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the face?

Ophthalmic nerve
Maxillary nerve
Mandibular nerve

65

The optic canal is located along which wall of the orbit?

Superior wall of the orbit

66

What are the contents of the optic canal?

Optic nerve
Ophthalmic artery

67

What are the openings located along the medial wall of the orbit?

Anterior ethmoid foramen
Posterior ethmoid foramen

68

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?

Lamina papyracea

69

The superior orbital fissure is located along which wall of the orbit?

Superior orbital fissure

70

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

Oculomotor nerve
Trochlear nerve
Abducent nerve
Ophthalmic division of trigeminal
Ophthalmic veins

71

What openings are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?

Inferior orbital fissure

72

What is contained in the inferior orbital fissure?

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

73

Identify the openings found along each wall of the orbit.

Superior wall = optic canal
Medial wall = anterior & posterior ethmoid foramen
Lateral wall = superior orbital fissure
Inferior wall = inferior orbital fissure