Head And Spine Injuries Flashcards Preview

Paramedic > Head And Spine Injuries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head And Spine Injuries Deck (43):
0

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31

1

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12

2

Which motor/sensory nerve controls the arms?

Brachial plexus

3

Which motor/sensory nerve controls the legs?

Lumbosacral plexus

4

What are three major types of peripheral nerves?

Sensory nerves
Motor nerves
Connecting nerves

5

What two places are connecting nerves found only?

Brain
Spinal cord

6

Which peripheral nerves carry info from body to brain via spinal cord?

Sensory nerves

7

Which peripheral nerves sends info fro CNS to muscles?

Motor nerves

8

What do connecting nerves do?

Connect sensory and motor nerves with short fibers, which allows cells on either end to exchange messages

9

What connects the mandible to the cranium?

The temporomandibular joint

10

What two large structures make up the skull?

Cranium
Face

11

How many vertebrae are in the spinal column?

33

12

What are the five sections of the spinal column?

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacrum
Coccyx

13

How many vertebrae are in the cervical spinal column?

7

14

How many vertebrae are in the thoracic spinal column?

12

15

How many vertebrae are in the lumbar spinal column?

5

16

How many vertebrae are in the sacrum spinal column?

5

17

How many vertebrae are in the coccyx spinal column?

4

18

What are intervertebral disks?

Cushions that lie between vertebraes

19

What is distracted regarding the spine?

Action of pulling the spine along its length

(Hangings)

20

What is retrograde amnesia?

Can remember everything but events leading up to injury

21

What is antegrade amnesia?

Inability to remember events after an injury

22

Where do subdural hematoma's occur?

Beneath the dura but outside the brain

23

Where do intracerebral hematoma's occur?

Within the parenchyma of the brain

24

Where do epidural hematomas occur?

Outside the dura and under the skull

25

What is a sign of intracranial pressure following a head injury?

Rapid deterioration of neurologic signs

26

What is the only indication for hyperventilating a patient with a head injury?

Evidence of cerebral herniation such as abnormal pupils and only after hypotension and hypoexemia have been addressed

27

What three signs make make up the Cushing triad?

Increased blood pressure
Decreased pulse
Irregular respirations

28

What two things is Cushing triad a sign of?

Cerebral edema
Increased intracranial pressure

29

What is a common response to head injuries especially in children?

Vomiting because of increased intracranial pressure

30

What is cranial nerve 3?

Oculomotor nerve

31

Ah what gcs score should you consider intubation?

Less than 9

32

What is brain herniation?

Brain pushing out from where it belongs

33

What are two signs of brain herniation?

Change in pupils
Abnormal posturing (decorticate/decerebrate)

34

What is the freely movable sheet of connective tissue that helps deflect a blow to the head called?

Gales aponerotica

35

What causes diffuse axonal injury? (DAI)

Effect of rapid acceleration/deceleration

36

What occurs during a complete cord transection?

All tracts of the spinal cord are completely disrupted

37

What function do you lose with anterior cord syndrome?

Loss of motor function

38

What function do you lose with posterior cord syndrome?

Loss of sensory function

39

What occurs with central cord syndrome?

Weakness in upper extremities

Normal strength in lower

40

What is brown-sequard syndrome?

Hemisection of spinal cord on one side

41

What two things does brown-sequard syndrome cause?

Motor and sensory loss on same side of injury
Some sensation loss on opposite side

42

What is spinal shock?

Temporary loss of all spinal cord function distal to injury