What is the difference between vitamins and minerals, and what are some common minerals required for human nutrition?
Vitamins are organic nutrients, meaning that they contain carbon (an element found in all living things). Minerals are pure inorganic elements.
Some common minerals in food include:
Which mineral promotes bone density and is commonly found in dairy products, seaweeds, almonds, sesame, quinoa, spinach, and okra?
What is a calorie?
A unit of energy equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
Which organic compound is easy to digest and is common in breads, pastas, potatoes, and rice?
What sugar substitute is found in many processed foods like sodas, salad dressings, and candy?
high fructose corn syrup
Overconsumption of high fructose corn syrup may cause obesity and diabetes.
What compound helps in the digestion of foods, the production of vitamin D and hormones, and can be found in eggs, cheese, shrimp, beef, pork, and poultry?
What mineral conducts oxygen transfer in the form of hemoglobin and can be found in lentils, red meat, poultry, beans, leafy vegetables, sesame seeds, and tofu
What mineral is important to neural functioning and can be found in tomatoes, potatoes, and oranges?
What compound helps generate energy and build muscle, and is naturally found in meats, legumes, nuts, grains, and eggs?
What molecule is recommended in small amounts by the Centers for Disease Control and the American Heart Association, and can be found in dairy products, meat products, coconut oil, and chocolate?
What mineral is used for taste and food preservation, but can contribute to high blood pressure if consumed in excessive amounts?
Which vitamin combats night-blindness and keratomalacia (dry cornea) and can be found in dairy products, eggs, poultry, liver, and fish?
Which class of water-soluble vitamins plays an important role in cell metabolism and is divided into 8 chemically distinct vitamins?
Vitamin B Complex
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- Vitamin B3 (niacin)
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal)
- Vitamin B7 (biotin)
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Which vitamin combats scurvy and can be found in fruits and vegetables?
Which vitamin combats rickets and osteomalacia (soft bones) and can be found in fish, liver, and dairy products (also produced through sunlight hitting the skin)?
Which vitamin combats hemolytic anemia and can be found in nuts, grains, and sesame seeds?
Which vitamin combats bleeding diathesis and is produced by intestinal bacteria?
Which mineral acts as a catalyst in enzymatic reactions and can be found in lamb, beef, and liver?
What is a normal resting adult heart rate?
60-100 beats per minute (bpm)
An adult's heart rate may fall below this range when sleeping, and may rise above this range when exercising or experiencing extreme stress.
_____ _____ _____ is one's optimal heart rate when exercising.
Target heart rate
A heart rate below this target level indicates a workout that is not strenuous enough; a heart rate above this indicates a workout that is overly stressful on the body.
One's target heart rate depends on age and resting heart rate. For example, a person in their early 30s has a target heart rate of between 95-162 beats per minute.
What is a healthy blood pressure and how is blood pressure measured?
A systolic blood pressure less than 120 is normal; 120-139 indicates prehypertension, and 140 and above indicates high blood pressure.
A diastolic blood pressure less than 80 is normal; 80-89 indicates prehypertension, and 90 and above indicates high blood pressure.
- Two numbers make up a blood pressure reading; they are typically reported as a top and bottom number.
- The top number, or systolic blood pressure, measures pressure on the arteries.
- The bottom number, or diastolic blood pressure, measures pressure on the arteries between heartbeats.
_____ exercise is cardiovascular in nature and strengthens endurance, whereas _____ exercise strenghthens muscles.
Aerobic exercises include jogging and biking. Anaerobic exercises include weightlifting and and sit-ups.
_____ _____ _____ is the rate of energy loss (calories burned) when resting.
Basal metabolic rate
Your body burns calories while breathing and performing necessary bodily functions, such as thinking and digesting.
_____ _____ _____ is dependent upon height and weight, and is used as a measure of body fat.
Body mass index
Body mass index (BMI) is broken up into 4 categories:
- Underweight = less than 18.5
- Normal weight = 18.5 - 24.9
- Overweight = 25 - 29.9
- Obesity = 30+
_____ is the rate at which the body converts food into energy.
Metabolism is influenced by diet, exercise, and sleep. For the most part, the idea of "fast" and "slow" metabolism is a myth, as metabolism can fluctuate with age and lifestyle choices.
What is the chemical that is added to many processed foods to enhance flavor?
MSG (monosodium glutamate)
Some people have reported reactions to MSG such as headaches, sweating, and nausea, although researchers classify it as "generally recognized as safe."
What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are molecules that prevent the oxidation of other molecules, thereby protecting against free radicals (compounds which cause cellular mutation and lead to cancer).
Antioxidants are found in fruits, vegetables, sesame seeds, and in many other healthy foods.