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Block 5 module 3 COPY > hearing > Flashcards

Flashcards in hearing Deck (76):
1

first portion of the ear to develop is the

inner ear

2

inner ear begins to form at _____ after fertilization as a thickening of the surface ectoderm, called
_______ that appear on either side of the
________.

22 days; otic placodes
rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

3

otic placodes invaginate quickly to form the

otic pits

4

The otic pits pinch off from the surface
ectoderm to form the ________ within the
______of the head.

otic vesicles; mesenchyme

5

middle ear develops from

1st pharyngeal puch

6

auditory ossicles develop from

1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches

7

external ear develops from

1st pharyngeal cleft

8

separates the middle ear and external ear

tympanic membrane

9

this collects sound waves and conducts them to the tympanic membrane

external ear

10

parts of external ear

auricle
external auditory canal

11

middle ear conveys sound vibrations to the ________

oval window

12

this conveys sound vibrations to the oval window

middle ear

13

middle ear serves as an _______ and _______ matching device

amplifier and impedance

14

middle ear receives sensory innervation mediated by

CN IX

15

parts of middle ear

tympanic cavity
tympanic membrane
auditory ossicles
eustachian tube

16

the internal ear houses the receptors for

hearing and equilibrium

17

the internal ear is derived from _____ of the _____

otic placode of the rhombencephalon

18

the internal ear is located within the ________ of the ______

bony labyrinth of the temporal bone

19

part of internal ear

labyrinth
vestibule and organ of conti

20

parts of outer ear

auricle (pinna)
external auditory meatus

21

the outer 1/3 of the EAC is surrounded by ______ and the outer 2/3 is by

cartilage
mastoid bone

22

function of EAC

allows air to warm before reaching TM and isolates TM from physical damage

23

the tympanic membrane changes _____ to ______ energy

acoustic to mechanical energy

24

3 layers of tympanic membrane

1. outer squamous
2. middle fibrous
3. inner mucosal

25

these conduct sound waves from the TM to the oval window of the inner ear

audtiory ossicles

26

auditory ossicles

malleus, incus and stapes

27

skeletal musscles attached to the auditory ossicles

tensor tympani and stapedius

28

attachment of stapedius muscle

stapes

29

the stapedius muscle contracts in response to loud sounds this is

acoustic reflex

30

built in earplugs

stapedius muscle

31

absent acoustic reflex could signal

conductive loss or marked sensorineural loss

32

the middle ear functions as an impedance matching device by

amplifying the sound pressure

33

Mucous-lined, connects middle ear cavity to
nasopharynx

eustachian tube

34

the eustachian tube connects the _______ to ______

mid ear to nasopharynx

35

function of eustachian tube to middle ear

it equalizes air pressure on both sides of the ear drum

36

the eustachian tube is normally

closed

37

functions of eustachian tube

1. ventilates tympanic cavity and air cells
2. equalizes pressure diff b/n tympanic cavity and atmosphere
3. drain mid ear spaces
4. creates a barrier to ascending infection

38

the cochlea houses the

organ of corti

39

end organ of hearing

organ of corti

40

where hair cells attach

tectorial membrane

41

the osseous labyrinth contains

perilymph

42

perilymph is located at

osseous labyrinth

43

membranous labyrinth contains

endolymph

44

endolymph is located at

membranous labyrinth

45

most effective
sound waves are those that are transmitted
across the ___ and the ______ to the
oval window

drumhead; ossicles

46

As the sound pressure displaces the perilymph,
it results in _______, and a traveling wave is propagated
from the base to the apex of the _____

deformation of the basilar
membrane; cochlea

47

Displacement of the basilar membrane causes

movement of the Organ of Corti and its hair cells

48

The fluid-filled cochlea tends to ____ as they progress down its length, so that
waves dissipate before reaching the _______

dampen the
waves; helicotrema

49

Mechanical energy of the stapes footplate
motion is converted into

electrical impulse

50

acoustic energy in the form of sound waves, is
channeled into the ear canal by the

pinna

51

Malleus, which is attached to the TM, starts

the
ossicles in motion

52

stapes moves in and out of the ________ creating a fluid motin or hydraulic energy

oval window of the cochlea

53

auditory pathway

1. 8th nerve
2. cochlear nuclei
3. superior olivary
4. nucleus
5. lateral lemniscus
6. inferiour colliculus
7. medial geniculate body
8. auditory cortex

54

where all or almost all the auditor fibers
synapse.

inferior colliculus

55

The Auditory cortex is within the ______ lobe
of the brain

temporal

56

tolerable sound is from _____ to _____-

0-140 dB

57

pitch is related to a sound's _______

vibration frequency

58

pitch is measured in

cycles per second

59

sound characterized by a definite pitch
of harmonic combination of pitches

tone

60

process wherein the perception of a
sound event can be diminished by other
simultaneous or near -simultaneous sound
events

masking

61

low frequency is stimulated at

apex of cochlea

62

high frequency is stimulated at

base of cochlea

63

refers to the maintenance of the
position of the body (mainly the head) relative to the
force of gravity.

static equilibrium

64

maintenance of body
position (mainly the head) in response to rotational
acceleration or deceleration

dynamic equilibrium

65

receptor organs for equilibrium

vestibular apparatus

66

vestibular apparatus includes

semicircular ducts
utricle
saccule

67

the semicircular ducts contain

cristae

68

semicircular ducts is the site of hair cells for _______

dynamic equilibrium

69

the utricle and saccule contains ____, site of hair cells for ______

macula, static equilibrium

70

mechanic of balance involves

inner ear
retina of the eye
musculoskeletal
CNS

71

the semicircular canals are sensitive to ______

rotation (angular acceleration)

72

sensitive to linear motion and to changes in head position relative to gravity

otolith organs

73

utriculus (utricle) is located in the

horizontal plane of the head

74

saccule is located in the

vertical plane

75

functions of the sense of equilibrium

spatial orientation
balance control
visual image stabilization

76

fast,
uncontrollable movements of the eyes

nystagmus