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Flashcards in History Deck (13)
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1

What is genetic engineering?

Technology that allows you to;
isolate/characterise genes
produce and characterise proteins
alter the genetic makeup of an organism through new genes or loss of existing genes

2

When did scientists discover that DNA could be transferred between organisms?

1946

3

When did Cohen and Boyer pioneer DNA transfer and what was it pioneered in?

1972-1974 in bacterial systems

4

When was southern hybridisation made?

1975

5

When was DNA beginning to be sequenced?

1977-1980

6

When were transgenic animals beginning to be produced and what were they?

19080 where dominant oncogenes were inserted into mice

7

When were transgenic plants produced and what were they?

1983 where antibiotic-resistant tobacco was produced

8

When was PCR made?

1985

9

When was site-directed mutagenesis made and what does it do?

1985 and allows for mutations of codons

10

When was the first transgenic animal declared 'safe to eat' by the FDA?

2012 after a 17-year registration process

11

Describe RNA interference in maize

SmartStaxProMaize expressed dsRNA for enhanced resistance to insect pests

12

What is genome editing?

DNA is inserted, depleted, or replaced using engineered nucleases

13

Name 3 genome editing tools that use nucleases

Zing finger nucleases
Transcription activator-like effector based nucleases
CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9)