Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Define behavior as it relates to psychology.
__________ are defined as internal experiences, including feelings and thoughts.
Why is psychology a scientific study?
uses empirical data to disprove hypotheses
describes, predicts, and explains behavior and mental processes
systematic collection and observation of data
An example of the nature vs. nurture controversy is whether intelligence is __________ or derives from __________.
Define dualism as it relates to psychology.
idea that the mind and body are separate entities that interact
When you think of Dualism you should think of Descartes, who said “I think therefore I am” (Cogito ergo sum).
What is monism?
the idea that the brain and the mind are the same thing, and that every mental state is reducible to an identical brain state
Plato and Descartes, believers in dualism, are on the side of __________ in the nature vs. nurture controversy.
Descartes believed knowledge was innate and the pineal gland was considered the mind.
Which side in the nature vs. nurture controversy are Aristotle and Locke, believers in monism, on?
Locke's "tabula rasa" translates to "blank slate" suggesting that knowledge is learned through experience.
Psychology grew out of which discipline(s) in Ancient Greece?
philosophy, physiology, and biology
Who is credited with the foundation of scientific psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt, who performed the earliest studies in 1879 in Germany, is considered the father of the discipline of psychology. He created the first lab dedicated to psychological research, and wanted to measure consciousness.
__________ examines the structure of the mind and basic elements of consciousness. Proponents of this system felt that consciousness should be the data of psychology and the best way to research was by using individuals who were trained in introspection.
Introspection is the process whereby observers look inward and objectively analyze their sensory experience.
Name the first president of the American Psychological Association (APA).
G. Stanley Hall
Who was Edward Titchener?
Titchener, a researcher at Cornell University, was one of the earliest structuralists. He felt that psychology should study the structure of consciousness, and that meant studying sensations, images, and affections (emotions).
__________ was the first woman to receive her Ph.D. in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Define functionalism as it relates to psychology.
Functionalism was the school of thought that was a reaction to structuralism. Functionalism studies how the mind adapts to its environment. Functionalism was interested in individual differences, whereas structuralism was interested in groups of people.
Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
Name three of the earliest functionalists.
How did William James contribute to functionalism?
James published psychology's first textbook, called The Principles of Psychology, from a functionalist perspective.
Behavior results from learning through experience.
What is behavior modification?
set of techniques to help individuals unlearn habits that have led to psychological problems
Describe Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments.
Pavlov, an early behaviorist, in his famous classical conditioning experiment, trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a bell.
What did John Watson believe psychology should study?
Watson, one of the earliest behaviorists, felt psychology should be the science of overt behavior and reject the study of mental processes.
Who is the psychologist behind operant conditioning of rats and pigeons?
training organisms to repeat responses that lead to rewards and not to repeat responses that lead to punishment
What is the key premise in Gestalt psychology?
Gestalt psychology stresses that the whole process should be studied, rather than specific parts.
- Gestalt psychology was a reaction to structuralism
- While structuralism seeks to study the elements that make up consciousness, Gestalt psychology stresses the idea that the “whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Max Wertheimer was a _____ psychologist.
What are the ABCs of behavior according to the behavioral approach?
antecedent environmental conditions
consequences of behavior
Where do behavioral geneticists believe behavior comes from?
particular behaviors are attributed to genetically-based psychological characteristics
Who is the father of psychoanalysis?
According to psychoanalysis, early life experiences are related to the development of one's __________ later in life.
Other than Sigmund Freud, name four psychologists who associate with the psychoanalytic perspective.
The __________ approach studies unconscious motives, while the biological approach studies chemical processes.
What is the difference between the conscious mind and the subconscious mind?
The conscious mind is readily accessible, while the subconscious mind is inaccesible but influences behavior.
psychoanalytic term for burying information in the subconscious
__________, unlike behaviorists, believe free will guides behavior and leads to personal growth.
psychological perspective that believes humans have unique qualities of behavior that differ from other organisms
Name two psychologists who associate with the humanistic approach.
Technological advances and physiological research formed the basis of the __________ approach.
The biological approach is also known as biopsychology or neuroscience.
According to the biological perspective, behavior is related to the __________ processes within the nervous and endocrine systems.
Behaviors that contribute to survival and reproduction are naturally selected.
Who was the inspiration behind the evolutionary approach to psychology?
Darwin's theory of natural selection said all creatures have evolved over time in order to survive and reproduce.
Which psychological approach focuses on thinking, language, and how humans receive, store, and process information?
Who first studied the cognitive development of children?
The structuralists studied consciousness, thinking, and memory. This area of psychology is currently known as __________.
People from different cultures interpret gestures, body language, and verbal language differently.
These psychologists study how cultural differences affect behavior.
The behavioral approach became popular in the early 20th century with Pavlov's research
The humanistic approach came about in the mid-20th century in opposition to Behaviorism
Lastly, the sociocultural approach grew toward the end of the century as there were more interactions between different cultures
Instead of calling themselves bio-cog-socio-humanists, these psychologists would identify as being __________ psychologists.
These individuals evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
What do counseling psychologists specialize in?
Counseling psychologists help people make changes in their lifestyles.
What do developmental psychologists study?
Developmental psychologists study psychological development over an individual's lifespan.
__________ psychologists study the effectiveness of teaching and learning.
These individuals study how humans improve technology and consumer products
Engineering psychologists are also known as human factors psychologists.
Forensic psychologists study the relationship between psychology and __________.
Health psychologists study the biological, social, and psychological factors surrounding health and __________.
What do industrial/organizational psychologists specialize in?
Industrial/organizational psychologists focus on improving productivity in the workplace.
These individuals examine the relationships between the brain, nervous system, and behavior.
Neuropsychologists are also known as:
- biological psychologists
- behavioral geneticists
- physiological psychologists
- behavioral neuroscientists
__________ psychologists explore attitudes, traits, and goals of individuals.
These individuals examine methods for discovering and interpreting psychological data.
Psychometricians are also known as psychometric psychologists and measurement psychologists.
These individuals assist patients with mental disabilities, developmental disabilities, and disabilities from physical trauma.
What do school psychologists specialize in?
School psychologists focus on counseling students, educators, and parents.
What do social psychologists study?
Social psychologists study how an individual's thoughts and behavior are related to his or her interactions with other people.
These individuals assist athletes in narrowing their focus on goals, increasing motivation, and coping with the fear of failure.