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Flashcards in Hypersensitivities- Nelson Deck (20):
1

What is meant by light chain restriction?

Neoplastic B-cell population will either have kappa or lambda light chains

2

What the generative lymphoid organs?

aka as primary or central = where T and B cells mature and become competent to respond to antigens

T-cells = thymus

B-cells= bone marrow

3

What is HLA testing used for?

To determine disease risk

Used in transplantation work up

4

What mechanisms are used to detect ligh chain restriction?

Flow cytometry

Serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis, kappa/lamda in situ hybridizaiton study, B-cell immunoglobulin gene rearrangement

5

Flow cytometry

allows for quantification of subpopulations expressing the antigen of interes

*can distinguish T and B cells

*can distinguish kappa from lambda light chains)

6

Serum protein electrophoresis/ immunofixation electrophoresis

7

Kappa lambda in situ hypbridization study

Can do hybridization of bone marrow sections to see if kappa or lambda restricted

8

What are the 5 pillars of cancer treatment?

Surgery 

Chemotherapy

Radiation Therapy

Targeted Therapy

Immunotherapy

9

Define hypersensitivity

a pathological immune reaction

May be caused by enviornmental or endogenous self antigens

Reactions poorly controlled, excessive, or misdirected

10

What is a type I hypersensitivity?

Production of IgE antibody - mediated by IgE antibody-dependent activation of mast cells with degrandulation adn release of mast cell contents

Need sensitization first

Eosinophils secred MAJOR BASIC PROTEIN and EOSINOPHIL CATIONIC PROTEIN which is toxic to epithelial cells

11

Examples of Type I hypersensitivity?

Anaphylaxis

Allergies

Bronchial asthma

12

Define Atopy

the predisposition to develop immediate hypersensitivity reactions

13

What is the late phase reaction of a Type I (immediate) hypersensitity?

Release of mediators that amplify and sustain inflammatory response without additional exposure to the triggering antigen (characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate rich in eosinophils)

14

What are the treatments for localized allergic reactions?

Antihistamiens

corticosteroids

Leukotriene modifiers

Desensitization therapy

15

What are some clinical findings in systemic anaphylaxis?

Drop in blood pressure

Vascular shock

Bronchospasm

Laryngeal edema with difficulty breathing

16

What is Type II hypersensitivity?

antibodies that react with normal or altered cell surface antigen or with antigen in the extracellular matrix

Mechanism:

Opsonizaiton by antibodies and complement

Induce inflammation by binding to Fc receptors on leukocytes

Distrube normal function of receptors

17

What is goodpasture's syndrome?

antibody direct to a non-collagenous protein in basement membrane of kidney glomeruli and lung alveioli

Nephritis and lung hemorrhage

Type II hypersensitivity

18

Define type III hypersensitivity

caused by deposition of antigen-antibody complexes which elicit inflammation at the sites of deposition

1. Complex formation

2. Complex deposition

3. Immune complex-mediated inflammation and tissue injury

(Lupus, reactive arthritis, serum sickness)

19

Define type IV hypersensitivity, and give some examples

inflammation resulting form cytokines produced by CD4+ T cells and cell killing by CD8+ T cells (no antibodies involved)

Examples: Delayed hypersensitivity reaction, TB skin test, Type 1 diabetes, MS, RA

20

Mechanism for granuloma formation

Focus of chronic inflammation consisting of a microscopic aggregation of macrophages that are transformed into epithelial-like cells called histiocytes