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Flashcards in Infectious Diseases Deck (65)
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1

Septicemia in the newborn period is most likely caused by which organism?
a) listeria monocytogenes
b) haemophilus influenzae
c) neisseria meningitidis
d) streptococcus pneumoniae

a) listeria monocytogenes

2

Signs and symptoms of bacterial sepsis in children beyond the neonatal period include:
a) cough, fever, abdominal pain
b) vesicular rash, pruritus, fever
c) irritability, fever, lethargy
d) abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting

c) irritability, fever, lethargy

3

Which of the following vaccines provides protection against a common type of sepsis/meningitis?
a) smallpox vaccination
b) hepatitis B vaccine
c) Haemophilus influenzae vaccine
d) Inactivated polio vaccine

c) Haemophilus influenzae vaccine

4

Although relatively rare in the US, diphtheria can occur among under-immunized children. Which of the following clusters of signs, symptoms, and physical findings would suggest diphtheria in a child presenting with upper respiratory complaints?
a) Low-grade fever, sore throat, nasal discharge, and grayish-white pseudo-membrane in his/her throat
b) Abrupt onset of high fever, severe sore throat, nasal discharge, and grayish-white pseudo-membrane in the throat
c) Low-grade fever, abrupt onset of severe sore throat with difficulty swallowing and drooling
d) Abrupt onset of high fever, severe sore throat, with difficulty swallowing, and drooling

a) Low-grade fever, sore throat, nasal discharge, and grayish-white pseudo-membrane in his/her throat

5

Infants younger than 6 months of age with pertussis frequently require hospitalization to manage:
a) fever, cough, dehydration
b) coughing paroxysms, apnea, cyanosis, feeding difficulties
c) coughing paroxysms, dehydration, renal failure
d) seizures, fever, pneumonia

b) coughing paroxysms, apnea, cyanosis, feeding difficulties

6

One of the most appropriate agents used to treat influenza A is:
a) Acyclovir
b) Osteltamivir
c) Erythromycin
d) Tetracycline

b) Osteltamivir

7

Which of the following symptoms are characteristic of rubella?
a) vesicular, crusted lesions and high fever
b) postauricular lymphadenopahthy and low grade fever
c) intense pruritus, usually in finger webs, buttocks, thighs, and ankles
d) rough textured maculopapular rash that blanches with pressure

b) postauricular lymphadenopahthy and low grade fever

8

Although uncommon, a potential sequela of rubella may include:
a) pneumonia and chronic OM
b) arthritis, thrombocytopenia and encephalitis
c) oophoritis and inphertility
d) arthritis, carditis, and neurological involvement

b) arthritis, thrombocytopenia and encephalitis

9

Rubeola is:
a) preventable by active immunization
b) caused by human herpesvirus 6
c) treated with intravenous acyclovir
d) not associated with severe complications (i.e. encephalitis, pneumonia)

a) preventable by active immunization

10

You are examining a child who has fever, coryza, cough, conjunctivitis, malaise, and anorexia. During the oral examination you notice red eruptions with white centers on the buccal mucosa. What are these eruptions called?
a) pastia's spots
b) rubeola spots
c) koplik's spots
d) strawberry spots

c) koplik's spots

11

Which of the following best describes the treatment for roseola?
a) acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever, parental reassurance
b) warm compresses for salivary gland swelling
c) oral acyclovir, 20mg/kg/dose, four times a day
d) bed rest, saline gargles for sore throat

a) acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever, parental reassurance

12

Fifth disease is usually:
a) seen in age 5-14 yo children
b) transmitted via the deer tick
c) treated with oral erythromycin
d) characterized by prolonged coughing episodes

a) seen in age 5-14 yo children

13

Which of the following statements is not true regarding the transmission of chickenpox?
a) susceptible individuals can contract chickenpox from patients with varicella zoster (shingles)
b) children with chickenpox are infectious only during the period of time when skin lesions are present
c) children with chickenpox are no longer infectious once crusting of skin lesions has occurred
d) varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) should be administered to susceptible immunocompromised individuals who are exposed to a patient with varicella zoster infection

b) children with chickenpox are infectious only during the period of time when skin lesions are present

14

A child with chickenpox and a temperature of 102 should receive which medication for fever?
a) aspirin
b) amoxicillin
c) acetaminophen
d) acyclovir

c) acetaminophen

15

The most appropriate agent for use in treating varicella zoster infection in an immunocompromised host is:
a) ganciclovir
b) acyclovir
c) ceftriaxone
d) chloramphenicol

b) acyclovir

16

Varicella zoster infection is most commonly associated with which of the following skin lesions?
a) vesicle
b) comedone
c) nodule
d) macule

a) vesicle

17

Which of the following is not a complication of mumps?
a) meningitis
b) pneumonia
c) oophoritis
d) pancreatitis

b) pneumonia

18

What recommendation would you make to a parent whose son has been diagnosed with mumps and want to know when he can return to child-care?
a) he can return once he becomes afebrile and can tolerate eating
b) he can return 9 days after onset of symptoms
c) he can return when he is well enough to participate in activities
d) he can return after a minimum of 5 days of antibiotic therapy

b) he can return 9 days after onset of symptoms

19

Which of the following are symptoms of cat scratch disease?
a) joint pain, conjunctivitis, mild neck stiffness
b) irritability, fever, hypotension
c) fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy
d) severe coughing, vomiting, anorexia

c) fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy

20

The following describes a characteristic rash associated with which disease? Initially erythematous and macular, becoming maculo-papular and petechial. The rash first appears on the wrists and ankles, spreading proximally to the trunk. The palms and soles are often involved.
a) Lyme disease
b) Roseola
c) Rubeola (measles)
d) Rocky Mountain spotted fever

d) Rocky Mountain spotted fever

21

A 10 yo child manifests symptoms of fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes. Spleen tip is palpable. Throat culture and monospot test results are negative. The next logical diagnostic test would involve:
a) repeat throat culture
b) chest radiograph
c) bone marrow examination
d) epstein-barr virus titer

d) epstein-barr virus titer

22

Which of the following factors is not associated with increased risk for infantile botulism?
a) rural environment
b) use of honey
c) use of corn syrup
d) farm families

c) use of corn syrup

23

Which of the following interventions would not be appropriate for a 6 mo infant with a suspected diagnosis of infantile botulism?
a) stool and blood cultures
b) immediate administration of equine antitoxin
c) stool softeners
d) supportive care

b) immediate administration of equine antitoxin

24

Which of the following are associated with paralytic poliomyelitis?
a) lacy, erythematous, pruritic rash
b) respiratory compromise, speech disturbances, urinary incontinence
c) abdominal swelling, lymphadenopathy, and jaundice
d) nonspecific abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting

b) respiratory compromise, speech disturbances, urinary incontinence

25

Muscle spasms associated with tetanus are aggravated by which of the following?
a) fever
b) tetanus immunoglobulin
c) external stimuli
d) NSAID

c) external stimuli

26

Classic symptoms associated with malaria include:
a) low grade fever, upper respiratory congestion, cough
b) annular rash, conjunctivitis, headache, arthralgia
c) high fever, chills, rigors, sweats, headache
d) high fever, jaundice, lethargy, vomiting

c) high fever, chills, rigors, sweats, headache

27

Lyme disease is most closely associated with which of the following skin lesions?
a) erythema migrans
b) nodule
c) scale
d) pustule

a) erythema migrans

28

Many infectious diseases present with rashes along with general complaints of fever, malaise, and headaches. Which of the following clusters of symptoms would make you consider Lyme disease as a likely diagnosis?
a) fever, malaise, headache, arthralgia and well-circumscribed, erythematous, annular rash with central clearing
b) fever, malaise, headache, transient bone pain, and generalized erythematous, maculopapular rash that began on the face and spread to trunk and extremities
c) fever, malaise, anorexia, and confluent, erythematous, brownish maculopapular rash
d) fever, malaise, anorexia, and erythematous rash beginning on wrists and ankles then spreading to the trunk

a) fever, malaise, headache, arthralgia and well-circumscribed, erythematous, annular rash with central clearing

29

Which of the following would be included in patient education regarding Lyme disease?
a) educate caretakers regarding complications, including hypertension and renal calculi due to immobility
b) avoid use of aspirin-containing products for fever control due to association with increased risk for Reye's Syndrome
c) protective clothing and tick repellent should be worn in heavily wooded areas
d) educate caretakers regarding natural history of illness, and specific follow up needed after infection with Rickettsia rickettsii

c) protective clothing and tick repellent should be worn in heavily wooded areas

30

A mother calls the clinic because chicken pox has been going around school and she has just noticed a few red spots along the hairline of her son's face. She asks if there is anything that can be given to shorten the duration or severity of the illness. Which of the following is most accurate?
a) Diphenhydramine elixir has been shown to shorten the duration and severity of the rash
b) Acyclovir has been shown to shorten the duration and severity of the illness
c) Aspirin taken 4 times a day has been shown to shorten the duration and severity of the illness
d) There is no medication known to alter the course of the illness

b) Acyclovir has been shown to shorten the duration and severity of the illness

Acyclovir has been shown to slightly shorten the duration of fever and new lesion formation.