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Flashcards in Integrative Deck (51):
1

normal range ph

7.35 - 7.45

2

how anion gap calculated

NaK - ClHCO3

3

causes of metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap

diarrhoea, renal tubular necrosis

4

how t1dm lead to shock

DKA causing dehydration

5

what is patient safty incident, near miss, serious untoward incident, never event

PSI - unintended event leading to pt harm
near miss - potential for harm
serious untoward incident - incident which may have legal or media reprecussions
never event - serious and largely preventable

6

how report clinical incident

datix reporting, inform key line managers

7

where haemotpoeisis in fetus

0-2 mths - yolk sac
3-5 mths - liver and spleen
6+ - BM

8

what is red an dyellow BM

red - haematopoeitic
yellow - fatty

9

what is red and white pulp of spleen

red - sinuses lined by endothelial macrophages
white - like lymph follicles

10

anatomy of lymph node. where are b and t cells found

see book
cortex - B cell
paracortex - t cell

11

what causes splenomegaly

increased work load, congestion e.g. portal hypertension, infilatration by WBC eg. brucellosis

12

causes of hyposplenism

coeliac and sickle cell

13

wat is aplastic anaemia

pancytopenia with hypocellular BM

14

what is ataxia telangiectasia. treat?

thymic hyperplasia leading to reduced B cells. treat with BM transplant

15

what is myelodysplasia

BM failure - reduced mature blood cells and increased erythrocytes. Abrnomal RBCs in blood

16

what are stellate cells of liver

secrete collagen scar tissue in damage

17

how does diastolic and systolic heart failure occur

diastolic - hypertrophy leading to stiff ventricles, improper diastole
systolic - dilated cardiomyopathy

18

what is clonus

3+ beats

19

what is folate

vit b9

20

what is hoffman reflex

tap middle or ring results in flexion of thumb. pathological if asymmetrical (UMNL)

21

haemorrhagic stroke causes

hypertension, anti coag, blood abnormalities, tumoue

22

symptoms of TACS

all of following - hemianopia. hemiparesis, hemisensory loss, cortical dysfunction - HHHC

23

symptoms of PACS

2 of HHH or cortical dysfunction

24

symptoms of anaemia and signs

symptoms - tired, dizzy, palpitations, headaches, SOB, weakness, angina, HF
signs - palor, tachycardia, systolic flow murmur

25

microcytic anaemia causes

TAILS - thalassemia, anemia of chronic disease, iron, lead, sideroblastic anemia

26

macrocytic anemia causes

alcoholism, b12 or folate deficiency, hypothyroidism

27

normocytic anemia causes

Bm failure, anaemia of chronic, mixed Fe and B12 def, bleeding(?)

28

name for increased neutrophils and causes

neutrophilia - smoking, infection, cancer, haemorrhage, inflammation,

29

name for increased monocytes and causes

monocytosis - chronic inflamm, chronic infection (TB), leukaemia

30

name for increased eosinophils and causes

eosinophilia - drug hypersens, allergic disease, parasite infection

31

name for increased basophils and causes

basophilia - UC, RA

32

what causes leukoerythroblastic anemia and result?

SOL in BM leads to immature blood cells in blood

33

what tests extrinsic and instrinsic clotting

extrinsic - INR
intrinsic - APTT

34

reduces platelet function?

uremia, NSIADs, hypergammaglobulinaemia

35

haemophilia factors A and B?

A - eight
B - nine

36

caues of non epileptic seizures

trauma, hypoglyc, hypoxia

37

give type1-4 hypersensitivty pathology and examples

1 - IgE - asthma, anaphylaxis
2 - IgG against cell surface antigens - autoimmune haemolysis, blood transfusion reaction
3 - Ag/Ab complex deposited in tissues leading to inflammation - RA, lupus
4 - Th1 cells activate macrophages which damage - graft rejection, hashimoto, TB

38

vit b12 drug?

hydroxocobalamin

39

metabolic pathways in RBC?

NADPH and (glucose to lactate and ATP)

40

tests for haemolysis

bilirubin, blood films, reticulocyte count, DCT, haptoglobin

41

anemia test

ferritin levels

42

explain anemia of chronic disease and how treat and test

inflammation goes to increased IL-6 which increases hepcidin which reduces ferroportin.
test - high ferritin with low % transferrin sat
treat - EPO

43

fluid in body?

40% of TBW in ICF
20% of TBW in ECF - 20% in plasma and 80% in ISF

44

how much g of solute in 5% solution

5g of solute in 100g of solution

45

where is parotid fascia come from

investing layer of deep cervical fascia

46

how is CSF circulated

help from ependymal cells in spinal cord

47

name of segments in small bowel and large bowel? difference?

small - valvulae conniventies (go all the way)
large - Haustra only half way

48

what happens to cells in hyperkalemia?

cell depolarised - Na channels inactivated. less AP

49

give factors to identify biliary colic

fatty meal is worse. referred to back pain. R hypochondriac

50

Diabetes type 2 management plan

lifestyle to metformin then sulphonylureas (above 7%) then TZD or insulin (above 7.5%)

51

Define standardised mortality rate

taking into account confounders, death comparison