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Flashcards in Intravenous Access Deck (47):
0

The cell membrane is composed of what two parts?

Hydrophilic layer
Hydrophobic layer

1

What is the hydrophilic layer of the cell membrane?

Outer layer composed of phosphate groups

2

What is the hydrophobic layer of the cell membrane?

The inner layer made up of lipids and fatty acids

3

What is an electrolyte called that has a positive charge?

Cation

4

What is an electrolyte called that has a negative charge?

Anion

5

What are three major cations of the human body?

Sodium
Potassium
Calcium

6

What are three major anions of the human body?

Bicarbonate
Chloride
Phosphorus

7

What is a hypertonic solution?

There is a greater concentration of sodium out of the cell. Water is drawn out of the cell which causes the cell to collapse from extracellular osmotic pressure

8

What is hypotonic solution?

There is a lower concentration of sodium outside of a cell. Water flows inside the cell causing it to swell and possibly burst from increased intracellular osmotic pressure

9

Where are the three fluid compartments in the human body located?

Intravascular (inside veins)
Intracellular (inside the cell)
Interstitial (outside vascular system surrounding cells)

10

What are the five basic types of IV solutions?

Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Crystalloid
Colloid

11

What is tonicity?

The movement of water in relation to the sodium levels inside and outside of the cells

12

What fluid is used for patients who lost large amounts of blood?

Lactated Ringers solution

13

Where is the buffering compound lactate metabolized and what does it do?

It is metabolized in the liver to form bicarbonate

14

Who do you never give lactated ringer's solution to?

Patients with liver problems
(They can't metabolize the lactate)

15

What is an isotonic solution?

Has the same concentration of sodium as does the cell. Water doesn't shift and no change in cell shale occurs

16

What is D5W solution?

An isotonic solution that contains 5% dextrose in water. It is isotonic as long as it remains in bag but turns hypotonic when it is administered and quickly metabolized

17

What is normal saline?

An isotonic solution with .9% sodium chloride

18

What solution has close to the same osmolarity as serum?

Isotonic solutions

19

What solution has an osmolarity less than serum?

Hypotonic solution

20

What solution has an osmolarity higher than serum?

Hypertonic solution

21

What do hypotonic solutions do?

Hydrate cells while depleting the vascular compartment

22

How many mL of isotonic crystalloid solution is needed to replace 1 mL of a patients blood?

3 mL

23

What do crystalloid solutions contain?

Dissolved crystals (sugars, salt)

24

What makes crystalloid solutions a good choice for prehospital care?

The ability of the fluids to cross membranes and alter various fluid levels

25

What do colloid solutions do?

Since the molecules in the solution are too large to pass capillary membranes, they stay in vascular compartment and have high osmolarity so they draw fluid from interstitial and intracellular compartments into vascular compartments

26

What are colloid solutions made up of mostly?

Proteins

27

How many gtt/mL do microdrip sets allow?

60 gtt/mL

28

How many gtt/mL do macrodrip sets allow?

10-15 gtt/mL

29

What does gtt mean regarding IVs?

Drops

30

How are catheters sized?

The larger the diameter of the needle, the smaller the gauge size

31

What is a good rule of thumb for choosing catheter size

The more distal the IV site, the smaller the catheter gauge size

32

What four colors do blood tubes come in to draw blood?

Red
Blue
Green
Lavender

33

What is the pneumonic for the order of filling blood tubes while drawing blood?

Red (red)
Blood (blue)
Gives (green)
Life (lavender)

34

What is the drip rate formula?

(Volume in mL✖️drip set)➗(Time in minutes) = gtt/Min

35

What are four things you need to include in your documentation regarding IVs?

The gauge of the needle
The site
Type of fluid administered
Rate the fluid is running

36

What does antecubital mean?

Anterior to the elbow

37

What is the parenchyma of the kidney?

Nephron

38

What are three crystalloid solutions?

Normal saline (.9% NaCl)
Lactated ringers
D5W

39

What does a bolus mean?

Give 20cc/kg

(Person weighs 220lbs
=100kg
20✖️100kg= 2000kg
=2L)

40

What is infiltration?

Fluids escape into surrounding tissues during iv

41

What is phlebitis?

Inflammation of the vein

42

What does KVO mean? (TKO)

Keep vein open (to keep open)

43

What does KVO equal?

8-15 gtts/min

44

Where do you deliver intraosseous injections?

In the tibia plateau
(Two fingers below tuberosity, one finger medially)

45

At what location do you insert an intraosseous injection?

In the tibial plateau

46

What is it called when you add a hypertonic solution to a blood stream and the cells "dehydrate"?

Crenation