Intravenous Access Flashcards Preview

Paramedic > Intravenous Access > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intravenous Access Deck (47)
Loading flashcards...
0

The cell membrane is composed of what two parts?

Hydrophilic layer
Hydrophobic layer

1

What is the hydrophilic layer of the cell membrane?

Outer layer composed of phosphate groups

2

What is the hydrophobic layer of the cell membrane?

The inner layer made up of lipids and fatty acids

3

What is an electrolyte called that has a positive charge?

Cation

4

What is an electrolyte called that has a negative charge?

Anion

5

What are three major cations of the human body?

Sodium
Potassium
Calcium

6

What are three major anions of the human body?

Bicarbonate
Chloride
Phosphorus

7

What is a hypertonic solution?

There is a greater concentration of sodium out of the cell. Water is drawn out of the cell which causes the cell to collapse from extracellular osmotic pressure

8

What is hypotonic solution?

There is a lower concentration of sodium outside of a cell. Water flows inside the cell causing it to swell and possibly burst from increased intracellular osmotic pressure

9

Where are the three fluid compartments in the human body located?

Intravascular (inside veins)
Intracellular (inside the cell)
Interstitial (outside vascular system surrounding cells)

10

What are the five basic types of IV solutions?

Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Crystalloid
Colloid

11

What is tonicity?

The movement of water in relation to the sodium levels inside and outside of the cells

12

What fluid is used for patients who lost large amounts of blood?

Lactated Ringers solution

13

Where is the buffering compound lactate metabolized and what does it do?

It is metabolized in the liver to form bicarbonate

14

Who do you never give lactated ringer's solution to?

Patients with liver problems
(They can't metabolize the lactate)

15

What is an isotonic solution?

Has the same concentration of sodium as does the cell. Water doesn't shift and no change in cell shale occurs

16

What is D5W solution?

An isotonic solution that contains 5% dextrose in water. It is isotonic as long as it remains in bag but turns hypotonic when it is administered and quickly metabolized

17

What is normal saline?

An isotonic solution with .9% sodium chloride

18

What solution has close to the same osmolarity as serum?

Isotonic solutions

19

What solution has an osmolarity less than serum?

Hypotonic solution

20

What solution has an osmolarity higher than serum?

Hypertonic solution

21

What do hypotonic solutions do?

Hydrate cells while depleting the vascular compartment

22

How many mL of isotonic crystalloid solution is needed to replace 1 mL of a patients blood?

3 mL

23

What do crystalloid solutions contain?

Dissolved crystals (sugars, salt)

24

What makes crystalloid solutions a good choice for prehospital care?

The ability of the fluids to cross membranes and alter various fluid levels

25

What do colloid solutions do?

Since the molecules in the solution are too large to pass capillary membranes, they stay in vascular compartment and have high osmolarity so they draw fluid from interstitial and intracellular compartments into vascular compartments

26

What are colloid solutions made up of mostly?

Proteins

27

How many gtt/mL do microdrip sets allow?

60 gtt/mL

28

How many gtt/mL do macrodrip sets allow?

10-15 gtt/mL

29

What does gtt mean regarding IVs?

Drops