Flashcards in Intro Neurology Deck (13):
What are the top 5 neurological disorders?
Dyskinesia: difficulty performing voluntary muscle movements, fragmented or jerky movements
Bradykinesia: slow movement
Akinesia: inability to initiate movement
Rigidity: increase in resistance to passive movement
Chorea: "to dance," brief irregular contractions not repetitive or rhythmic
Ballism: sever chorea, thrashing motions
Dysarthria: articulation disorder caused by impairment of speech muscles. (Stammering or stuttering)
Allodynia: ordinarily painless stimulus is painful.
Akathisia: motor restlessness; inability to sit still.
Cataplexy: muscular weakness resulting in sudden loss of postural tone (may result in falling to floor)
Cogwheeling: ratchet like movement d/t superimposition of tremor on rigidity
Facial masking: decreased facial expression d/t rigidity of facial muscles
Festination: involuntary tendency to take short accelerating steps in walking that can occur in parkinsons dz
Freezing: sudden, brief cessation of movement
Korsakoff syndrome: chronic thiamine deficiency characterized by impairment in establishing new memories and retrieving previous memories, occuring most commonly in alcoholics.
Myoclonus: sudden, shock-like jerking contraction of a group of muscles
Oculogyric crisis: dystonic rxn to neuroleptic drugs manifested by sudden sustained twisting of the head and upward deviation of the eyes; responsive to anticholinergic or antihistamine medications.
On-off phenom: sudden, unpredictable changes in motor performance by pts on levodopa
Palsy: paralysis or a muscle group
Paraplegia: paralysis of both legs
Penumbra: an area surrounding a dense core of irreversibly damaged cells that is capable of recovery
Tardive: sx that develop slowly or appear long after inception
-Tic: repetitive, stereotyped, simple, or complex movements that can be voluntarily suppressed for short periods of time (throat clearing or eye blinking)
-Torticollis: form of dystonia in which the neck muscles contract involuntarily, causing the heard to turn.
-wearing off phenomenon
wearing off: waning of the effects of a dose of levodopa prior to the scheduled time for the next dose resulting in decreased motor performance.
Fleunt aphasia(Wernickes): impairment of language comprehension
-twisting and writhing movements
Dystonia: sustained muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posture.
Oromandibular dystonia: muscle of tongue and jaw distortion