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Flashcards in Intro Neurology Deck (13):
1

What are the top 5 neurological disorders?

Stroke
Migraine
Epilepsy
Dimentias
Parkinsons

2

Define:
-Dyskinesia
-Bradykinesia
-Akinesia

Dyskinesia: difficulty performing voluntary muscle movements, fragmented or jerky movements

Bradykinesia: slow movement

Akinesia: inability to initiate movement

3

Define:
-Rigidity
-Chorea

Rigidity: increase in resistance to passive movement

Chorea: "to dance," brief irregular contractions not repetitive or rhythmic

4

Define:
-Ballism
-Dysarthria

Ballism: sever chorea, thrashing motions

Dysarthria: articulation disorder caused by impairment of speech muscles. (Stammering or stuttering)

5

Define:
-allodynia
-akathisia
-cataplexy

Allodynia: ordinarily painless stimulus is painful.

Akathisia: motor restlessness; inability to sit still.

Cataplexy: muscular weakness resulting in sudden loss of postural tone (may result in falling to floor)

6

Define:
-cogwheeling
-Facial masking
-Fasiculation

Cogwheeling: ratchet like movement d/t superimposition of tremor on rigidity

Facial masking: decreased facial expression d/t rigidity of facial muscles

Fasiculation: twitch

7

Define:
-festination
-freezing
-Korsakoff syndrome

Festination: involuntary tendency to take short accelerating steps in walking that can occur in parkinsons dz

Freezing: sudden, brief cessation of movement

Korsakoff syndrome: chronic thiamine deficiency characterized by impairment in establishing new memories and retrieving previous memories, occuring most commonly in alcoholics.

8

Define:
-Myoclonus
-Oculogyric crisis
-on-off phenomenon

Myoclonus: sudden, shock-like jerking contraction of a group of muscles

Oculogyric crisis: dystonic rxn to neuroleptic drugs manifested by sudden sustained twisting of the head and upward deviation of the eyes; responsive to anticholinergic or antihistamine medications.

On-off phenom: sudden, unpredictable changes in motor performance by pts on levodopa

9

Define:
-palsy
-paraplegia
-penumbra

Palsy: paralysis or a muscle group

Paraplegia: paralysis of both legs

Penumbra: an area surrounding a dense core of irreversibly damaged cells that is capable of recovery

10

Define:
-Tardive
-Tic
-Torticollis

Tardive: sx that develop slowly or appear long after inception

-Tic: repetitive, stereotyped, simple, or complex movements that can be voluntarily suppressed for short periods of time (throat clearing or eye blinking)

-Torticollis: form of dystonia in which the neck muscles contract involuntarily, causing the heard to turn.

11

Define:
-wearing off phenomenon
-fluent aphasia

wearing off: waning of the effects of a dose of levodopa prior to the scheduled time for the next dose resulting in decreased motor performance.

Fleunt aphasia(Wernickes): impairment of language comprehension

12

Define:
-athetosis
-Dystonia
-oromandibular dystonia

Athetosis:
-twisting and writhing movements

Dystonia: sustained muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posture.

Oromandibular dystonia: muscle of tongue and jaw distortion

13

Define:
-facial and cervical dystonia
-blepharspasm
-spastic dystonia

Facial/Cervical dystonia: face or neck muscles cauasing head or facial expression to be pulled to one side.

Blepharispasm: muscle around the eyes, repetitive blinking

Spastic dystonia:
-muscle of the larynx, voice is broke or whispered.