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Flashcards in IV Fluids Deck (76)
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1

Things to Consider with IV Fluids

Why an IV?
Know your patient: age, heart/lung/kidney problems
Watch for signs of dehydration
Monitor: weight, BP, HR, BMP, & urine output

2

Disorders of Volume in a Surgical Patient

Depletion
Excess

3

Disorders of Electrolyte Concentrations

Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Calcium
Magnesium
Phosphate

4

Sequelae of Inappropriate Fluid & Electrolyte Management

Increased length of stay
Increased cost
Wound infection
Delayed wound healing
Anastomotic failure
Tachyarrhythmias
Cerebral edema, seizures, death
Pulmonary edema, CHF, renal failure

5

3 Things to Accomplish with IV Therapy

Maintenance therapy
Replacement therapy
Volume resuscitation

6

Reason for Maintenance Therapy

Patient not expected to eat or drink for a while

7

Reason for Replacement Therapy

Correct abnormalities in volume and/or electrolytes

8

Reasons for Volume Resuscitation

Hypotension
Hemorrhage

9

What does total body water depend on?

Age
Gender
Muscle mass
Fat

10

Total Body Water as a % of Weight Decreases in

Morbidly obese individuals
Elderly
People with low muscle mass due to disease or injury

11

How much of total body weight does the intracellular fluid hold?

2/3

12

How much of total body weight does the extracellular fluid hold?

1/3

13

What does the plasma portion of the ECF contain?

Main: Na+
Cations: K+, Ca++, Mg++
Anions: Cl-, HCO3-, proteins, sulfates, organic acids

14

What does the ICF contain?

Main: K+, Mg++
Anions: phosphates, sulfates, & proteins

15

What can flow freely among all of the compartments in the body?

Water

16

Normal Body Fluid Osmolarity

285 osmol/L

17

Types of Fluid Replacement Products

Crystalloids
Colloids

18

Types of Crystalloids

Dextrose in water
Saline
Combination
Ringer's Lactate (physiologic)

19

Examples of Colloids

Albumin
Dextran
Hetastarch
Blood
FFP

20

Define Crystalloid

Solution that contains small molecules & are able to pass through semi-permeable membranes

21

Define Colloid

Solutions that contain high molecular weight proteins or starch
Can not cross semi-permeable membranes
Remain in the intravascular space

22

When are colloids indicated?

Rapid hemodynamic equilibration is required

23

What is important when addressing a specific situation?

Composition of the solution
Rate of administration

24

Why are isotonic solutions given?

To expand the ECF volume

25

Why are hypotonic solutions given?

To reverse dehydration

26

Why are hypertonic solutions given?

To increase the ECF volume & decrease cellular swelling

27

Examples of Isotonic Fluids

Normal Saline
Ringer's solution
Lactated Ringers

28

What does Ringer's solution contain?

Sodium
Potassium
Calcium

29

What is missing from Ringer's solution?

Dextrose
Magnesium
Bicarbonate
Calories
Free water

30

What does Lactated Ringer's contain?

Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Chloride
Lactate