Flashcards in IV Fluids Deck (76)
Things to Consider with IV Fluids
Why an IV?
Know your patient: age, heart/lung/kidney problems
Watch for signs of dehydration
Monitor: weight, BP, HR, BMP, & urine output
Disorders of Volume in a Surgical Patient
Disorders of Electrolyte Concentrations
Sequelae of Inappropriate Fluid & Electrolyte Management
Increased length of stay
Delayed wound healing
Cerebral edema, seizures, death
Pulmonary edema, CHF, renal failure
3 Things to Accomplish with IV Therapy
Reason for Maintenance Therapy
Patient not expected to eat or drink for a while
Reason for Replacement Therapy
Correct abnormalities in volume and/or electrolytes
Reasons for Volume Resuscitation
What does total body water depend on?
Total Body Water as a % of Weight Decreases in
Morbidly obese individuals
People with low muscle mass due to disease or injury
How much of total body weight does the intracellular fluid hold?
How much of total body weight does the extracellular fluid hold?
What does the plasma portion of the ECF contain?
Cations: K+, Ca++, Mg++
Anions: Cl-, HCO3-, proteins, sulfates, organic acids
What does the ICF contain?
Main: K+, Mg++
Anions: phosphates, sulfates, & proteins
What can flow freely among all of the compartments in the body?
Normal Body Fluid Osmolarity
Types of Fluid Replacement Products
Types of Crystalloids
Dextrose in water
Ringer's Lactate (physiologic)
Examples of Colloids
Solution that contains small molecules & are able to pass through semi-permeable membranes
Solutions that contain high molecular weight proteins or starch
Can not cross semi-permeable membranes
Remain in the intravascular space
When are colloids indicated?
Rapid hemodynamic equilibration is required
What is important when addressing a specific situation?
Composition of the solution
Rate of administration
Why are isotonic solutions given?
To expand the ECF volume
Why are hypotonic solutions given?
To reverse dehydration
Why are hypertonic solutions given?
To increase the ECF volume & decrease cellular swelling
Examples of Isotonic Fluids
What does Ringer's solution contain?
What is missing from Ringer's solution?