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Flashcards in Local Anesthetic Agents 2 Deck (97)
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1

What is part of "multi-modal pain therapy"?

Locoregional anesthesia

2

Dose reduction of anesthetics can lead to what?

Reduced side effects

3

Selective nociceptive blockade can provide what type of relief?

Short or long term pain relief

4

What are 3 formulations of local anesthetics?

- Injectable with preservatives
- Injectable without preservatives
- Topical

5

Where are topical anesthetics applied?

Skin or mucous membranes

6

Topical anesthetics are very effective on what 4 areas?

- Eyes
- Nose
- Mouth
- Arytenoids

7

Topical anesthesia has less effective penetration of what type of skin?

Intact skin

8

What is EMLA cream?
When is it applied?
How long does it last?

- Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics
- Apply for 1 hour prior to intended use
- Anesthesia for 2 hours

9

With a low dose of ELMA cream, a cat usually won't develop what?

Methemoglobinemia

10

What is used to prevent laryngeal spams during intubation?
Approximately how much is used?

- Lidocaine spray
- 0.1 ml over arytenoids

11

A subcutaneous injection of small volumes of local anesthetic into tissues is what type of block?

Infiltrative local block

12

With an infiltrative local block, there is diffusion into where?

Surrounding tissue, anesthetizing nerve fibers and endings.

13

What are 3 examples of infiltration blocks?

- Incisional line block
- Inverted L block
- Soaker catheters

14

Which drug is usually used in an incisional line block?

Bupivacaine

15

Where is an incisional line block injected?

Laterally to incision.

16

What are the 2 landmarks of an inverted L block?

- Caudal border of Rib 13
- Ventral to lateral processes of lumbar vertebrae

17

What type of block gets deeper into tissues compared to topical?

Soaker catheter

18

A delivery tube and sterile multi-pore catheter is placed the the surgical site with what type of block?

Soaker catheter

19

How is local anesthetic delivered with a soaker catheter?

Intermittent injections or elastomeric reservoir pump

20

When is a soaker catheter placed?

After surgical procedure has been finished.

21

What are 2 measurements that need to be made for a soaker catheter?

- Length of catheter required for wound
- Length of catheter need to tunnel injection port under skin to a suitable site for administration

22

Do you need to suture in a soaker catheter?

No

23

What is a disadvantage of soaker catheters?

Now have FB in site of incision, may lead to infection.

24

Should you use a soaker catheter in an active dog?

No

25

What are 3 indications for use of a soaker catheter?

- Amputation
- Thoracotomy
- Total ear canal ablation

26

Which out of the following local anesthetic pKa's would have the fastest onset of action when being delivered in human tissue?
a) pKa 7.5
b) pKa 7.8
c) pKa 8.1
d) pKa 8.4
e) all have similar onset of action

A) pKa 7.5

27

What is the first sign of toxicity you will witness in an awake animal administered Bupivacaine?
a) Seizures
b) Gastrointestinal ileus
c) Cardiovascular depression
d) Respiratory depression
e) Vomiting

C) Cardiovascular depression

28

Which nerve fibers are least susceptible to local anesthetics?
a) A delta fiber
b) C fibers
c) A alpha fibers
d) B fibers
e) A beta fibers

C) A alpha fibers (motor fibers)

29

Injection in the immediate vicinity of individual peripheral nerves or a nerve plexus describes what type of nerve block?

Peripheral nerve block

30

What are 5 examples of nerve groups that peripheral nerve blocks can be used on?

- Cranial
- Cervical
- Thoracic
- Lumbar
- Sacral