Flashcards in Lower limb trouble spots Deck (57)
which portion of the femoral neck lies filly within the hip capsule?
The anterior surface.
The intertrochanteric line continues on to become which line?
The spiral line.
the tendon of which muscle grooves the inferior border of the posterior surface of the femoral neck?
The obturator externus.
What is the normal angle of inclination?
greatest when born, in adults its 125 degrees and in females its 105 which is why females have larger hips.
What is the angle of declination?
This is anterior projection of the femorus and is normally 12-14 degrees.
What are the surfaces and borders of the femur?
Two surfaces lateral and medial.
Four borders Superior, inferior, anterior and posterior.
The superior and inferior gemelli terminate by inserting into....
The tendon of the obturator internus
Which border of the femur does the piriformis insert onto?
The superior border
Which border does the gluteus minimus insert onto in the femur?
The anterior border.
Which muscle takes origin from the inferior border of the femur head?
What are the three attachments to the intertrochanteric line?
What is the medial line that joins the linea aspera?
The spiral line.
What is the intermediate line that inserts into the linea aspera?
The pectineal line that inserts into the medial lip of the linea aspera.
What is the most lateral line to insert into the linea aspera?
The gluteal line.
Gluteus maximus inserts here.
The sulcus menisci separate the ... and .... surfaces from the femoral condyles.
Help separate the patellar and tibial surfaces from the femoral condyles.
Describe the ACL attachment
From the anterior intercondylar space to the medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle.
Describe the PCL attachment
From the posterior intercondylar space to the lateral surface of the medial femoral condyle. T
The lower portion of the lateral femoral epicondyle has two grooves for the tendon of the popliteus muscle. Which groove is it located in when the knee is flexed vs extended?
When flexed it is in the oblique groove.
When extended it is in the vertical groove.
Which perforating branch of the ramus profundus feeds the femur?
The second perforating branch.
When does the femur shaft first appear and ossify?
First appears during 7th fetal week and fuses at puberty.
Is the primary ossification center for the femur.
When does the distal extremity of the femur first appear and when does it fuse?
Appears near birth fuses at 16-18
When does the head of the femur first appear and when does it fuse?
Appears at 6 months and fuses at 17 years.
When does the greater trochanter of the femur first appear and when does it fuse?
First appears at 4 years and fuses at 16.
When does the lesser trochanter of the femur first appear and when does it fuse?
First appears at 12-14 years of age and fuses at 15 years.
The vastus lateralus interacrts with the patella along which borders?
Along the superior and lateral border. It is the only muscle in the leg that attaches to two patellar borders.
Which of the two patellar condyles is largest?
The lateral fossa is the largest, deepest and most concave.
Where is the nutrient foramen of the patella?
Located along the inferior border
Where does the patella receive its blood supply from?
the genicular arteries that supply the quadriceps tendon.
When does the patella ossify?
Appear between 3-6 years old and ossify by puberty.
What muscle serves to separate the anterior and posterior divisions of the obturator nerve?
The adductor brevis.
The adductor brevis originates between which two muscles on the pubis?
The gracilis and obturator externus.
What muscles tendon insertion surrounds the fibular collateral ligament?
The tendons of the short and long heads of the bicep femoris.
The common peroneal nerve runs along its medial border.
Describe the actions of the biceps femoris.
both heads Flex the knee and laterally rotate the leg.
The long head serves to extend and laterally rotate the hip as well.
What is the function of the semitendinosus?
Flexes the knee and medially rotates in full flexion.
It also serves to extend the hip!
Which muscle forms the oblique popliteal ligament?
What is the function of the semimebranosus muscle?
Serves to flex the knee, medially rotate the knee in full flexion and extends the thigh.
The saphenous nerve passes between which two muscles?
Sartorius and Gracillis.
What nerves contribute to the subsartorial plexus?
The anterior branch of the obturator nerve
Medial femoral cutaneous nerves
This plexus is found just inferior to the adductor longus and deep to the sartorius muscle.
the sciatic nerve emerges behidn which muscle?
The long head of the biceps femoris.
What is the only posterior thigh muscle not innervated by the tibial nerve ?
The short head of the biceps femoris
Whats the first branch of the femoral artery?
The superficial epigastric artery.
What is the smallest branch of the femoral artery?
The superficial circumflex iliac artery.
In the lower 1/3 of the leg, the profunda femoris can be found behind what muscle?
Can be found behind the adductor longus muscle.
Terminates as the fourth perforating branch in the adductor magnus.
What forms the cruciate arterial anastamosis?
The lateral femoral circumflex (transverse portion) the medial femoral circumflex, the first perforating branch of quadratus profundus and the inferior gluteal artery.
What does the medial femoral circumflex pass between?
Passes between the pectineus and the psoas major muscle bellies.
What branches does the descending genicular artery give off?
The saphenous branch and an articular branch.
What muscles are supplied by the sural arteries?
The gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles.
Note the popliteus is not fed by this!!
where does the popliteal vein lie in relation to the artery at the distal end of the popliteal fossa?
Lies medially to the artery.
Which lymph node does the small saphenous drain into?
The most superficial lymph node in the popliteal space.
Which lymph nodes do the anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries drain into?
The medial and lateral lymph nodes.
Peroneal empties into this as well.
When does the shaft of the tibia appear and fuse?
Appears during 7th week in utero fuses during puberty
When does the proximal end of the tibia appear and when does it fuse?
Appears at birth and fuses between 16-18 years
When does the distal end of the tibia appear and when does it fuse?
Appears during the first year and fuses 15-17 years,
What two structures attach to the posterior aspect of the head of the fibula?
The soleus and the posterior ligament of the fibular head.
When does the shaft of the fibula appear?
8 weeks in utero fuses at puberty
When does the distal end of the fibula appear and when does it fuse?
Appears at 1 year and fuses at 15-17 years