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Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (88)
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1

What is lung cancer? 

A malignant lung tumour characterised by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung 

2

Of what type are most primary lung cancers? 

Carcinomas

3

What is a carcinoma? 

A malignancy that arises from epithelial cells 

4

What are the two main types of primary lung cancer? 

  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancer

 

 

5

Where is the histological type important in lung cancer? 

In determining the management and predicting outcomes in lung cancer

 

6

What are the 3 main subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer? 

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma 

 

7

What % of lung cancers are adenocarcinomas? 

40%

8

Where do adenocarcinomas usually arise from? 

Peripheral lung tissue 

9

What are most cases of adenocarcinoma associated with? 

Smoking

10

What % of lung cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas? 

30%

11

Where do squamous cell carcinomas typically occur close to? 

Large airways 

12

What is commonly found at the centre of a squamous cell carcinoma? 

Hollow cavity and associated cell death 

13

What % of lung cancers are large cell carcinomas? 

9% 

14

Describe the cells in large-cell carcinomas

Large (obviously), with excess cytoplasm, large nuclei, and conspicuous nucleoli

15

Where do most cases of small-cell lung cancer arise from? 

Larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi 

16

What do the cells contain in small-cell carcinoma? 

Dense neurosecretory granules 

17

What results from the presence of dense neuro-secretory granules in small-cell carcinoma? 

An endocrine/paraneoplastic syndrome association 

18

What % of patients with small-cell lung cancer have extensive disease at presentation? 

60-70%

19

Can cancers contain a combination of different subtypes? 

Yes, for example adenosquamous carcinoma 

20

What are the rare subtypes of lung cancer? 

  • Carcinoid tumours
  • Bronchial gland tumours
  • Sarcomatoid carcinomas

 

21

What are the risk factors for lung cancer? 

  • Smoking, including passive smoking
  • Asbestos
  • Previous radiotherapy to chest
  • Inhalation of gas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nickel, chromate, or inorganic arsenical
  • Genetic predisposition

22

What % of cases of lung cancer are due to smoking? 

80-90%

23

What does the risk of lung cancer relate to, in terms of smoking? 

  • Number of cigarettes smoked
  • Number of years smoking
  • Early age of starting smoking
  • Type of cigarette (filtered or unfiltered) 

 

24

What % of lung cancer cases occur in never-smokers? 

<10%

25

Is lung cancer in never-smokers more common in men or women? 

Womrn

26

What % of the UK adult population smokes? 

30%

27

How has tobacco use been changing recently? 

It has been reducing in men, perhaps due to health education, but increasing in women and adolescents 

 

28

What options do the NHS provide to people wanting to stop smoking? 

​Provides free stop smoking services, inclduing medications, one-on-one group stop smoking sessions, and preventing relapse

29

What medications can be given to help stop smoking? 

  • Varenicline
  • Bupropion
  • Nicotine replacement therapy

 

30

When did the UK ban smoking in public and work-places? 

2007