Where is malaria most prevelant?
Africa, Asia and Latin America
What would you see inside a malaria infected red cell?
Parasite forms Hemozoin
What kind of mosquito transmits malaria?
What is the organism that causes Malaria?
What are some species of plasmodium that cause malaria?
Plasmodium vivax, ovale, malariae Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum characteristics?
HIGH PARASITE BURDEN can causes severe anemia (can affect any STAGE of RBC) Cerebral and multi-organ symtpoms High fatality rate
Which malaria species is most common?
P. vivax and P. falciparum
Which species is most deadly?
Which species is most likely to causes relapses?
P. vivax and P. ovale
What are merozoites?
Little babies made in liver cells, that are then transmitted into the blood cells
Where is the first place in the human body plasmodium goes?q
Life cycle of plasmodium in humans
Sporozoites enter liver cell Form hepatic schizonts Become merozoites that are released into red blood cells Becomes a ring form Transforms to trophozoite, then shizont, and merozoites
What do trophozoites of falciparum look like?
curved, banana shaped gametocytes
Where would you find Schuffner's dots?
Ovales and vivax
Which stage can falciparum infect?
What are rosettes and when would you see them?
Causes RBC to clump around infected cell Caused by falciparum
What red cell pathology would you see when infected with falciparum?
Abnormal binding to endothelium*** infected cells make "knobs" that make them sticky
Blood flow is impeded
Cerebral ischemia in children
What are some clinical symptoms of malaria?
Liver and spleen is enlarged and pigmented (grey) Brain vessels get plugged Heart, lungs may also be involved
What is the only drug that acts in the liver to get rid of latent form of vivax and ovale (hypnozoites)?
What are the two species of malaira that have persistent hepatic forms?
Vivax and ovale
MOA of chloroquine
won't let hemozoin crystalize, and keeps FPIX toxic to parasite Prevent parasite from detoxing to hemozoin
Is chloroquine selective for infected cells?
YES! 25 fold, concentrates in the acid pH of the food vacuole
Large doses of chloroquine may cause adverse side effects, like what?
For long periods, can cause severe eye damage and even blindness (no real side effects for prophaylaxis, since dose is so small)
Advantage of Quinine and Quinidine?
More toxic than chloroquine but resistance has not readily developed used to treat chloroquine resistant P. falciparum
Where would you find schuffner's dots?
Ovale and vivax
What is this?
Ring form (Trophozoite) of plasmodium falciparum
How would a malaria patient present?
Prodrome: flu-like illness
Then episodic fever/chills, sweating, myalgia (frequency of episode depends on species)
What alterations in red cells could make a potential host resistant?
Hemoglobins (sickle cell)
What is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria?
Identification of plasmoida in red cells on regularly-stained blood smear
What drug would you use for prophalaxis of malaria?
What drug would you use for prophylaxis when travelling to an area with chloroquine resistant areas?