Malaria Module- Krafts/ Regal Flashcards Preview

IHO WEEK 3 > Malaria Module- Krafts/ Regal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malaria Module- Krafts/ Regal Deck (31):
1

Where is malaria most prevelant?

Africa, Asia and Latin America

2

What would you see inside a malaria infected red cell?

Parasite forms Hemozoin

3

What kind of mosquito transmits malaria?

Female Anopheles

4

What is the organism that causes Malaria?

Plasmodium (Protozoa)

5

What are some species of plasmodium that cause malaria?

Plasmodium vivax, ovale, malariae Plasmodium falciparum

6

Plasmodium falciparum characteristics?

HIGH PARASITE BURDEN can causes severe anemia (can affect any STAGE of RBC) Cerebral and multi-organ symtpoms High fatality rate

7

Which malaria species is most common?

P. vivax and P. falciparum

8

Which species is most deadly?

P. Falciparum

9

Which species is most likely to causes relapses?

P. vivax and P. ovale

10

What are merozoites?

Little babies made in liver cells, that are then transmitted into the blood cells

11

Where is the first place in the human body plasmodium goes?q

the liver!!!!

12

Life cycle of plasmodium in humans

Sporozoites enter liver cell Form hepatic schizonts Become merozoites that are released into red blood cells Becomes a ring form Transforms to trophozoite, then shizont, and merozoites

13

What do trophozoites of falciparum look like?

curved, banana shaped gametocytes

14

Where would you find Schuffner's dots?

Ovales and vivax

15

Which stage can falciparum infect?

ANY STAGE!!!

16

What are rosettes and when would you see them?

Causes RBC to clump around infected cell Caused by falciparum

17

What red cell pathology would you see when infected with falciparum?

Rosettes

Abnormal binding to endothelium*** infected cells make "knobs" that make them sticky

Blood flow is impeded

Cerebral ischemia in children

18

What are some clinical symptoms of malaria?

Liver and spleen is enlarged and pigmented (grey) Brain vessels get plugged Heart, lungs may also be involved

19

What is the only drug that acts in the liver to get rid of latent form of vivax and ovale (hypnozoites)?

Primaquine!

20

What are the two species of malaira that have persistent hepatic forms?

Vivax and ovale

21

MOA of chloroquine

won't let hemozoin crystalize, and keeps FPIX toxic to parasite Prevent parasite from detoxing to hemozoin

22

Is chloroquine selective for infected cells?

YES! 25 fold, concentrates in the acid pH of the food vacuole

23

Large doses of chloroquine may cause adverse side effects, like what?

For long periods, can cause severe eye damage and even blindness (no real side effects for prophaylaxis, since dose is so small)

24

Advantage of Quinine and Quinidine?

More toxic than chloroquine but resistance has not readily developed used to treat chloroquine resistant P. falciparum

25

Where would you find schuffner's dots?

Ovale and vivax

26

What is this?

Ring form (Trophozoite) of plasmodium falciparum

27

How would a malaria patient present?

Prodrome: flu-like illness

Then episodic fever/chills, sweating, myalgia (frequency of episode depends on species)

28

What alterations in red cells could make a potential host resistant?

Hemoglobins (sickle cell)

THalassemias

G6PD deficiency

RBC antigens

29

What is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria?

Identification of plasmoida in red cells on regularly-stained blood smear

30

What drug would you use for prophalaxis of malaria?

choroquine

31

What drug would you use for prophylaxis when travelling to an area with chloroquine resistant areas?

Atovaquone/proguanil