Flashcards in Maternal Diseases Deck (32)
What does TORCH stand for
2 body cavities or
1 body cavity & anasarca
Dilated umb vein
Due to Rh incompatibility
Better prognosis than non immune
Mom Rh- fetus Rh+. Mom forms antigens after 1st delivery. Next pregnancy affected. Antibodies attack fetal RBC.
Leads to fetal anemia, CHF, hydrops
Treat: blood transfusion into umb vein or peritoneal cavity.
*RHoGAM shot prevents
*Coombs test detects RBC antibodies
Non immune hydrops
High mortality rate
Usually with polyhydramnios and size greater than dates.
If have oligohydramnios, 100% mortality if have anomaly
A bunch of other causes
MC maternal disorder
Type 1: insulin dependent, juvenile onset. Body fails to produce insulin.
Type 2: non insulin dependent, adult onset, MC, insulin resistance, body can't use insulin.
Secondary diabetes: 2nd to panc disease, hormones, drugs
Gestational diabetes: with pregnancy. 4%.
Weight > 90%
> 4000 grams
> 8 lbs 13 oz
Develops in 2nd tri
Risk: previous stillbirth, previous birth with anomalies, previous Macrosomic infant, family history of diabetes
Findings: inc fetal fat, placentamegaly, polyhydramnios, high umb cord Doppler ratio
Blood pressure 140/90 mmHg
*pregnancy induced HTN
*chronic HTN (pre existing)
Risk of stillbirth, preeclampsia, IUGR, abruption, small mature placenta, inc resistance in umb Doppler
Preeclampsia: HTN, proteinuria, edema
Eclampsia: in 3rd tri, HTN, proteinuria, edema, seizures, coma
Assoc: low birth weight, fetal distress, abruption. Life threatening.
Tx: anti hypertensive meds, anticonvulsant meds with immediate delivery
Systematic Lupus Erythematosus
Auto immune disease
Connective tissue disorder
Butterfly rash in cheeks, sensitive to sun, skin, joints, kidneys, CNS,
Fetal demise, recurrent abortion, IUGR, toxemia, fetal heart block, pericardial effusion
Sickle Cell Anemia
Abnl sickle shape RBC
Pain episodes when sickle cells stuck in vessels & cut off blood -> sickle cell crises
Risks: SAB, premie, IUGR, short femurs
Fail to oxidize phenylalamine
Toxic acid build up leads to retard & seizures. Permanent damage if not treated within a yr.
Heel prick babies to check once born. Diet for life.
Risks: SAB, microcephaly, CHD
Due to Graves' disease
Small for gest age
Toxoplasmosis / Kitty Litter Disease
Parasitic infection toxoplasma gondii
Cat eats bird and poops. Humans get by eating raw meat or cleaning litter box.
Fever sore throat, self limiting
Sever IUGR, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, cerebral ca+, hepatosplenomegaly, demise.
Rubella / German Measles
SAB, stillbirth, microcephaly (sloping forehead), hydrocephalus, cephalocele (herniation brain through calvarium defect), ❤️problems
Spread by contact, body fluids
Asymptomatic, fever, sore throat
Fetal: hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, chorioretinitis, cerebral ca+, liver ca+, microcephaly, inguinal hernia, face/neck anomalies, CNS damage, ascites, IUGR, splenomegaly, hydrocephalus, polyhydramnios
Liver Ca+, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, hydrocephalus, brain Ca+, hydrops
Herpes I & II
SAB, still birth, microcephaly, hydranencephaly, brain ca+, microthalmus (sm eyes), hepatosplenomegaly
50% infect baby when delivered vag
Do c section
Varicella Zoster Virus/chicken pox: malformed limbs, microcephaly, microthalmus, postnatal disease
Epstein Barr Virus: causes mononucleosis, low birth weight
AIDs/HIV: SGA, fail to thrive, Hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy
Syphilis: SAB, stillborn, congenital disease
Gonorrhea: SAB, premie, still birth, blind, IUGR
UTI: leads to kidney infection, SAB, premie, still birth, IUGR
Malaria: SAB, premie, stillbirth, IUGR
Human Parvo Virus B19 / 5th disease / Erythema Infectiosum
Airborne viral infection affects RBC
Kids get it. Spread to teachers.
Low grade fever, malaise, red rash, slapped cheek appearance, joint pain
Fetal: hydrops, miscarriage, stillbirth, heart failure
Promotes fetal addiction, teratogenesis (organ genesis), IUGR
Class A: safest
B: no harm ID
C: not enough research
D: bad effects on fetus
IUGR, development problems, attention span, learning problems
LSD & opines such as heroine risk for SAB
Used for acne. Inc birth defects. Hydrocephalus, ❤️defects
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
11% preg women
Physical retard, CNS problems, facial abnl, ❤️defects, abruption, SAB
Low both weight, SAB, mature placenta
Excess link to SAB. > 7 cups/day. Greatly diminish in 1st tri