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Flashcards in Maternal Diseases Deck (32)
0

What does TORCH stand for

Toxoplasmosis
Other
Rubella
Citomegalo Virus
Herpes

1

Hydrops

Fluid overload
2 body cavities or
1 body cavity & anasarca

*anasarca
*ascites
*pleural effusion
*pericardial effusion

Placentamegaly
Polyhydramnios
Oligohydramnios
Cardiomegaly
Dilated umb vein

2

Immune Hydrops

Due to Rh incompatibility
Better prognosis than non immune

3

Rh incompatibility

Mom Rh- fetus Rh+. Mom forms antigens after 1st delivery. Next pregnancy affected. Antibodies attack fetal RBC.

Leads to fetal anemia, CHF, hydrops

Treat: blood transfusion into umb vein or peritoneal cavity.
*RHoGAM shot prevents
*Coombs test detects RBC antibodies

4

Non immune hydrops

High mortality rate
Usually with polyhydramnios and size greater than dates.

If have oligohydramnios, 100% mortality if have anomaly

❤️cause MC
A bunch of other causes

5

Diabetes Mellitus

MC maternal disorder

Type 1: insulin dependent, juvenile onset. Body fails to produce insulin.

Type 2: non insulin dependent, adult onset, MC, insulin resistance, body can't use insulin.

Secondary diabetes: 2nd to panc disease, hormones, drugs

Gestational diabetes: with pregnancy. 4%.

6

Macrosomia

Weight > 90%
> 4000 grams
> 8 lbs 13 oz

7

Gestational Diabetes

Develops in 2nd tri

Risk: previous stillbirth, previous birth with anomalies, previous Macrosomic infant, family history of diabetes

Findings: inc fetal fat, placentamegaly, polyhydramnios, high umb cord Doppler ratio

8

Hypertension

Blood pressure 140/90 mmHg
*pregnancy induced HTN
*chronic HTN (pre existing)

Risk of stillbirth, preeclampsia, IUGR, abruption, small mature placenta, inc resistance in umb Doppler

9

Toxemia

Preeclampsia: HTN, proteinuria, edema

Eclampsia: in 3rd tri, HTN, proteinuria, edema, seizures, coma

Assoc: low birth weight, fetal distress, abruption. Life threatening.

Tx: anti hypertensive meds, anticonvulsant meds with immediate delivery

10

Lupus

Systematic Lupus Erythematosus
Auto immune disease
Young females
Connective tissue disorder
Butterfly rash in cheeks, sensitive to sun, skin, joints, kidneys, CNS,

Fetal demise, recurrent abortion, IUGR, toxemia, fetal heart block, pericardial effusion

11

Sickle Cell Anemia

Abnl sickle shape RBC
Blacks, Hispanics
Causes anemia
Pain episodes when sickle cells stuck in vessels & cut off blood -> sickle cell crises

Risks: SAB, premie, IUGR, short femurs

12

Phenylketonuria

Fail to oxidize phenylalamine

Toxic acid build up leads to retard & seizures. Permanent damage if not treated within a yr.

Heel prick babies to check once born. Diet for life.

Risks: SAB, microcephaly, CHD

13

Hyperthyroidism

Due to Graves' disease

Small for gest age

14

Toxoplasmosis / Kitty Litter Disease

Parasitic infection toxoplasma gondii
Cat eats bird and poops. Humans get by eating raw meat or cleaning litter box.
Fever sore throat, self limiting

Sever IUGR, hydrocephalus, microcephaly, cerebral ca+, hepatosplenomegaly, demise.

15

Rubella / German Measles

SAB, stillbirth, microcephaly (sloping forehead), hydrocephalus, cephalocele (herniation brain through calvarium defect), ❤️problems

16

Cytomegalovirus

Spread by contact, body fluids

Asymptomatic, fever, sore throat

Fetal: hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, chorioretinitis, cerebral ca+, liver ca+, microcephaly, inguinal hernia, face/neck anomalies, CNS damage, ascites, IUGR, splenomegaly, hydrocephalus, polyhydramnios

17

TORCH findings

Liver Ca+, ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, hydrocephalus, brain Ca+, hydrops

Echogenic Bowel

18

Herpes I & II

SAB, still birth, microcephaly, hydranencephaly, brain ca+, microthalmus (sm eyes), hepatosplenomegaly

50% infect baby when delivered vag
Do c section

19

Other

Varicella Zoster Virus/chicken pox: malformed limbs, microcephaly, microthalmus, postnatal disease

Epstein Barr Virus: causes mononucleosis, low birth weight

AIDs/HIV: SGA, fail to thrive, Hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy

Syphilis: SAB, stillborn, congenital disease

Gonorrhea: SAB, premie, still birth, blind, IUGR

UTI: leads to kidney infection, SAB, premie, still birth, IUGR

Malaria: SAB, premie, stillbirth, IUGR

20

Human Parvo Virus B19 / 5th disease / Erythema Infectiosum

Airborne viral infection affects RBC
Kids get it. Spread to teachers.

Low grade fever, malaise, red rash, slapped cheek appearance, joint pain

Fetal: hydrops, miscarriage, stillbirth, heart failure

21

Drug use

Promotes fetal addiction, teratogenesis (organ genesis), IUGR

Class A: safest
B: no harm ID
C: not enough research
D: bad effects on fetus

22

Marijuana

IUGR, development problems, attention span, learning problems

23

Hallucinogenic

LSD & opines such as heroine risk for SAB

24

Amphetamine

❤️ defects

25

Cocaine

Abruption

26

Tylenol

Safest med

27

Retinol, Isotretinoin

Used for acne. Inc birth defects. Hydrocephalus, ❤️defects

28

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

11% preg women

Physical retard, CNS problems, facial abnl, ❤️defects, abruption, SAB

29

Nicotine

Low both weight, SAB, mature placenta

30

Caffeine

Excess link to SAB. > 7 cups/day. Greatly diminish in 1st tri

31

Nutrition disorders

Malnutrition: premie, low birth weight, IUGR

Obesity: HTN, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes