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Flashcards in Medication Administration Deck (28):
1

Medical Asepsis

Practice of preventing contamination of the patient by using aseptic technique

2

Sterile

Destruction of all living organisms using heat, gas, or chemicals

3

Antiseptics

Cleans an area before performing invasive procedure such as an IV

4

Disinfectnts

Toxic to living tissues and are used to clean objects or inside ambulance

5

Cell membrane

Phospholipid bilayer important to fluid movement and acid base balance and has selective permeability which is the ability to allow certain compounds into the cell based on the cells needs

6

Total Body Water of human

60%

7

Intracellular Fluid

45% of fluid

8

Extracellular Fluid

15% of fluid
10% interstitial and 5% intravascular

9

Solvent

Fluid that does the dissolving
Ex: water

10

Solute

Dissolved particles in solvent
Ex: salt in water

11

Electrolytes

Inorganic molecules and named so because of their ability to conduct electricity when they dissociate in water
-Also called ions

12

Cations of body

Positive charge:
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium

13

Anions of body

Negative charge:
Bicarbonate, Chloride, phosphrous

14

Measurement for electrolytes

mEq

15

Potassium

98% found within cells
Principal intracellular cation helps convert glucose to glycogen
Cellular potassium levels are regulated by insulin
NaK pump helped by epinephrine and insulin

16

Calcium

Important in functioning of heart, muscle and nerves and cell membranes
Hypocalcemia: leads to over stimulation of nerve cells, leading to cramps
Hypercalcemia: skeletal muscle weakness, lethargy, ataxia

17

Magnesium and Calcium

Control neuromuscular irritability

18

Phosphrous

Important with ATP of body and is powerful energy source

19

Diffusion

Compounds on one side of a cell membrane move across it to an area of lower concentration

20

Filtration

Used by kidneys to clean blood

21

Active Transport

Sodium Potassium pump uses energy to move particles across a membrane

22

Glucose

Follows potassium

23

Osmosis

Movement of water across a cell membrane from an area of low solute to an area of high solute

24

Dehydration

Inadequate total systemic blood Volume. As fluid is lost from vascular space, fluid is shifted from interstitial to intravascular and also shifts from intracellular to extracellular.
Signs: tachypnea, dry mucous membranes, decreased urine, tachycardia, poor skin turgor, flushed, dry skin, orthostatic hypotension

25

Overhydration

Total body volume increases and fluid fills vascular compartment, filters into interstitial and into the intracellular compartment
Signs: puffy eyelids, polyuria, moist crackles, Edema, weight gain

26

Crystalloid Solutions

Dissolved crystals (salts or sugars) in water
Great ability to cross membrane and alter fluid levels
3:1 ratio is 3ml of fluid per 1ml of blood lost to replace fluid
-Too much can dilute remaining blood diluting proportion of hemoglobin in vascular space

27

Colloid Solutions

Contain molecules (proteins) that are too large to pass out of capillary membrane and remain in vascular space. They also draw fluid from interstitial and intracellular compartments.
-work well in reducing pulmonary and cerebral edema

28

Lactate Ringers

Used in field for patients who have lost large amounts of blood
-lactate is metabolized in the liver to form bicarbonate and used as a buffer