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Flashcards in Melanoma Deck (17)
1

Melanoma pT3a N0

what does this indicate

P = pathological
T3 = tumour between 2-4 mm thick
a = non ulcerated

No nodes involved

2

Melanoma pT3a N0

what does this indicate

P = pathological
T3 = tumour between 2-4 mm thick
a = non ulcerated

No nodes involved

3

2 scales used to describe how deeply a melanoma has gone into the skin

Clark scale

Breslow scale

4

what are the 5 levels of the clark scale

1) melanoma cells are only in the outer layer of the skin (epidermis)

2) cells are in the layer directly under the epidermis

3) melanoma cells are throughout the papillary dermis and touching on the next layer down

4) melanoma has spread into the reticular or deep dermis

5) melanoma has grown into the layer of fat under the skin

5

how is Breslow scale carried out

pathologist measures the thickness of the melanoma with a small ruler

6

2 scales used to describe how deeply a melanoma has gone into the skin

Clark scale

Breslow scale

7

what are the 5 levels of the clark scale

1) melanoma cells are only in the outer layer of the skin (epidermis)

2) cells are in the layer directly under the epidermis

3) melanoma cells are throughout the papillary dermis and touching on the next layer down

4) melanoma has spread into the reticular or deep dermis

5) melanoma has grown into the layer of fat under the skin

8

how is Breslow scale carried out

pathologist measures the thickness of the melanoma with a small ruler

9

what investigation is required to complete staging

CT or PETCT

10

FDG avid

metabolically active

11

mutation that if tested to be positive, is suitable for targeted therapy

BRAF

12

common side effects of Opdivo and Ipilimumab

immunotherapies

- fatigue
- diarrhoea
- skin rash
- nausea
- electrolyte changes
- liver changes

13

WHO performance status 0-5

0 = able to carry out all normal activity without restriction
1 = restricted in strenuous activity but able to carry out light work
2 = capable of all self care; up and about more than 50% waking hours
3 = symptomatic and in bed for greater than 50% day
4 = disabled and totally confined to bed/chair

14

3 causes fo extensive lymphadenopathy

- lymphomas
- axillary lymph nodes in a female consider breast ca
- neck nodes could be from cancer of head or neck

15

management of brain mets

- surgery
- radiotherapy
- systemic trx that can cross BBB
- high dose dex
- inform DVLA

16

what does positive BRAF indicate

that the tumour is constantly switched on; therefore the signalling mechanism is being constantly stimulated by the BRAF molecule

17

side effects of BRAF and MEK inhibitors

- fevers
- diarrhoea
- neutropenia
- skin rashes