MENOPAUSE Flashcards Preview

OB/GYN > MENOPAUSE > Flashcards

Flashcards in MENOPAUSE Deck (27):
1

What is the strict diagnostic definition of the menopause?

Retrospective diagnosis after 1 year of absent cycles.

2

What age do women tend to go through the menopause?

45-55 years old

Average is 51

3

What do we call a premature menopause?

Less than 40 years old

4

Why can women experience symptoms of heavy bleeding and irregular periods in the perimenopausal phase?

Anovulatory (where no ovulation occurs) cycles become more common and oestrogen secretion can continue without progesterone opposition required to protect the endometrium. These patients are at risk of endometrial hyperplasia and rarely endometrial cancer.

5

What are the hormonal changes in the menopause?

FSH increases
LH increases
Oestrogen decreases
Progesterone decreases

6

What are the more immediate clinical features of the menopause?

Hot flushes and night sweats

Mood disturbances - mood swings, insomnia, anxiety, fatigue, loss of libido, loss of concentration

7

What are the intermediate and long term features and complications associated with the menopause?

Atrophy of vaginal tissue - dryness, dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding

Atrophy of urethra - dysuria, frequency and urge incontinence

Osteoporosis

Cardiovascular disease - gender equal likelihood by 70

8

It is still possible to get pregnant in the climacteric or perimenopausal phase?

Yes, therefore patients should continue to be offered contraception.

9

What blood test might you do to confirm the menopause?

Serum FSH levels will show markedly raised concentrations.

10

What are the conservative and medical options to help someone who has been through the menopause?

Regular aerobic exercise will help bone loss and improve muscle tone

Cessation of smoking and alcohol

Hormone replacement therapy

Non-hormonal pharmacological agents such as clonidine and SSRIs

11

What is the hormone given to postmenopausal women as part of HRT?

Oestrogen and progesterone

Oestrogen alone is given to patients who have had a hysterectomy, as progesterone is no longer required tpo protect the endometrium

12

Prior to the menopause, what is the main type of oestrogen circulating the body?

Oestradiol

13

Where is oestradiol produced?

In the granulosa cells of the developing follicle

14

Following the menopause, what is the main type of oestrogen circulating the body and where is it produced?

Oestrone produced in the peripheral tissues

15

What form of oestrogen is given as part of HRT?

Oestradiol

16

What are the different routes for administering HRT?

Oral

Transdermal (patch/gel)

Vaginal

Mirena IUS

17

Over what maximum period of time should cyclical preparations of HRT, which are therefore accompanied by monthly bleeding, be administered to a post-menopausal woman?

5 years

18

What are the advantages and disadvantages of oral HRT?

Advantages:
Cheap
Effective

Disadvantages:
First pass metabolism
Variable plasma levels
Higher doses required

19

What are the advantages and disadvantages of transdermal HRT?

Advantages:
Avoids first pass metabolism
Reduced risk of VTE
Continuous administration

Disadvantages:
Cost
Skin reactions

20

What are the advantages and disadvantages of vaginally administered HRT?

Advantages:
Good for urogenital symptoms
Minimal systemic absorption
Licensed for 3 months use without progesterone opposition

Disadvantages:
Unlikely to treat other symptoms

21

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Mirena coil HRT?

Advantages:
Licensed for 4 years to provide the progesterone arm of HRT
Contraceptive in perimenopausal phase

Disadvantages:
Only provides progesterones

22

What are the side effects of HRT?

Nausea
Fluid retention
Hirsutism
Leg cramps
Breast discomfort

23

What are the risks of taking HRT?

Cardiovascular disease
Breast cancer
Stroke

24

What are the contraindications to the use of HRT in the menopause?

Endometrial carcinoma
Breast carcinoma
Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
Undiagnosed breast lumps
Severe active liver disease
Pregnancy
Personal history of VTE - transdermal may be used

25

If hormonal agents are not tolerated or contraindicated in someone needing medical management to control the symptoms of menopause, what medications can be given?

Clonidine - centrally active alpha-2 agonist

SSRIs
SNRIs

26

Who should be considered for HRT in the menopause?

HRT should only be considered for those with severe symptoms.

It is also recommended for those under the age of 50 undergoing menopause for bone protection. This should be reviewed at 51.

27

As well as HRT, what can be given for osteoporosis prevention?

Bisphosphonates

Selective oEstrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

Calcium and vitamin D supplements