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Flashcards in Midterm - Cells & Neurons Deck (25):
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Action potential

Axon transmits neural message from soma to axon terminals ->
Contacts with other neurons made via synapses ->
Synaptic terminals store and release neurotransmitters

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Synapses

Neurotransmitter released from terminals

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Depolarization

Action potential traveling down an axon
Vesicles release stored neurotransmitters

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Embryogenesis

Overabundance of neurons in the brain

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Action potential results from...

Charged particles moving through cell membranes
Positive and negative ions are unequal on each side of the cell membrane

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Membrane potential is maintained by

Unequal distribution of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions

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Sodium potassium pump

Adjusts the distribution of ions involved in action potential

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Resting state

Cell not excited and not conducting an impulse

Unequal distribution of positive and negative ions

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Excitability

Cells response to stimuli and conversion of this response to an impulse or action potential

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Action potential is conducted faster in...

Myelin sheathed axon, and also dependent on diameter of axon

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Mitosis

Equal division of embryonic and adult cells

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Meiosis

Reduction division of chromosome # to half during regeneration so sex cells (gamete)

Ensures consistency of cell numbers from generation to generation

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Zygote

Resulting cell from fertilization

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Neural plate develops

Day 18
Forerunner for nervous system

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Neural tube develops into..

Brains and spinal cord

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2 postnatal years

Growth of glia and cellular connections

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Prosencephalon goes into...

Telencephalon and diencephalon

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Teratogenesis

Embryogenesis insult
Timing of insult is more critical than nature

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Cerebrospinal disorders are a result of

Neural tube closure failure w

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Spins bifida

Defective fusion of posterior vertebral column

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Neurons

Vital to the life of a cell - excitation and inhibition

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Primary elements of a neuron

Cell body (soma) - nucleus and cytoplasm
Dendrites - receive impulses
Axons - conduct impulses away from body

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Myelin sheath is produced by...

Oligodendroglial cells in CNS
Schwann cells in PNS

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Saltatory conduction

Impulses jump from one node to another

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Glia

Protection of nerve cells
Tissue repair