Misc. #2 - aa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Misc. #2 - aa Deck (25)
1

More than 90% of cases of encopresis result from _____ so you must treat the _____ before you can effectively treat encopresis

constipation

2

What is encopresis?

The repeated passage of stool into inappropriate places (such as in the underpants) by a child who is chronologically or developmentally > 4 years of age. The highest prevalence is between 5 and 6 years of age.

3

What is the most common type of inguinal hernia?

indirect

4

Inguinal hernia in infancy and childhood should be repaired; they never resolve spontaneously.
T/F

True

5

Scaphoid abdomen (concave anterior abdominal wall) is associated with what?

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

6

Meconium ileus is caused by ____ until proven otherwise.

cystic fibrosis

7

Cryptorchidism: surgical orchidopexy should be performed if descent has not occurred by what age?

6-12 months

8

What are two major risks of cryptorchidism?

~infertility
~testicular cancer

9

10-15% of Hirschsprung patients have ____.

Down syndrome

10

An oblong, nontender soft mass in the scrotum that is not reducible. Vast majority go away spontaneously by 18 months of age.

hydrocele

11

What are the HEADDSS topics?

Home environment/Health (family, nutrition, relationships)
Education/Employment (grades, homework, schedule, plans)
Activities (fun, tv, reading, sports, friends)
Drugs
Depression/suicide
Safety (home, school, seatbelt, helmets)
Sexuality (condoms, STIs, sexual preference)

12

Which comes first, pubic hair or armpit hair?

Pubic hair precedes axillary hair.

13

What is the number 1 leading cause of death in infants < 1 year?

congenital anomalies

14

What is the number 1 leading cause of death in children/adolescents > 1 year?

Unintentional injury

15

What are the top 5 leading causes of death in infants < 1 year?

1. congenital anomalies
2. short gestation
3. SIDS
4. pregnancy complications (maternal)
5. unintentional injury

16

What are the top 5 leading causes of death in adolescents 15-24?

1. unintentional injury
2. homicide
3. suicide
4. malignancy
5. heart disease!

17

A score of __ or more on CAGE questions is highly suggestive of substance abuse.

2

18

The use of urine toxicology for routine substance use screening is recommended/not recommended?

Not recommended.

19

What percentage of teen pregnancies end in live births?

57%

20

What country has the highest rate of teen pregnancy in the developed world?

U.S.

21

What is the leading cause of death in young athletes?

~sudden cardiac death, most often caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or congenital coronary artery anomalies
~use of screening ECG in asymptomatic patients is discouraged by AHA

22

What is the difference in bruising that is typically accidental in toddlers and bruising from abuse?

~toddlers/children typically sustain accidental bruising over bony prominences (e.g. shins, elbows)
~abusive bruising is typically found over the soft tissues

23

What STIs strongly suggest sexual abuse?

Gonorrhea or syphilis beyond the perinatal period

24

What abx are problematic in children?

1. aminoglycosides: nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
2. tetracyclines should not be given to children under 8 years old because can permanently discolor teeth
3. ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice for kids due to adverse events related to joints and surrounding tissues
4. allergic rxns (beta-lactams) and encephalopathy (penicillins)

25

"gasping syndrome"

A potentially fatal toxicity in neonates due to sodium benzoate in liquid acetaminophen preparations