MOD Session 5- Haemostasis And Thrombosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD Session 5- Haemostasis And Thrombosis Deck (21)
0

Define haemostasis

The body's response to prevent blood loss and stop bleeding

1

What is the key step in the coagulation cascade?

Prothrombin=> thrombin
Thrombin causes
Fibrinogen=> fibrin.

2

What is the main step in the fibrinolytic system?

Plasminogen=> plasmin via plasminogen activators
Plasmin breaks down fibrin.

3

2 examples of fibrinolytic therapies

Streptokinase
tPA

4

Why is streptokinase a fibrinolytic therapy?

It activates plasminogen.

5

Define thrombosis

The formation of a solid mass of blood within he circulatory system.

6

What is Virchow's triad?

States that Thrombosis occurs due to:
- vessel wall abnormalities
- blood flow abnormalities
- blood component abnormalities

7

Give an example of a blood vessel wall abnormality

Atheroma, direct injury, inflammation

8

Given an example of a blood flow abnormality

Stagnation, turbulence

9

Give an example of why a blood component abnormality arises

Smokers, post-op, pregnancy

10

Define embolism

The blockage of a blood vessel by a solid, liquid or gas, at a site distant from its site of origin.

11

What are the 5 types of emboli?

-nitrogen
-amniotic fluid
-air
-medical equipment
-tumour cells

12

What are the predisposing factors of DVT? (7)

-oral contraceptives
-trauma and severe burns
-pregnancy
-IMMOBILITY
-disseminated cancer
-post op
-cardiac failure

13

Why is a massive pulmonary embolism (PE) rapidly fatal?

Causes more than 60% blood flow reduction.

14

What is given to prevent DVT?

Subcutaneous heparin
Stockings

15

What is the treatment for DVT?

Intravenous heparin
Oral warfarin

16

What are the four necessary components for successful haemostasis?

-constriction of blood vessels in the vessel wall
-platelets adhere to each other and the damaged vessel wall to form a plug.
-coagulation system- cascade that converts prothrombin to thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
-fibrinolytic system- activates plasmin through conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, is in turn causes the break down of fibrin.

17

Give two examples of thrombin inhibitors. What happens if you have a deficiency in them?

Anti thrombin III
Protein C/S
Thrombosis of thrombophilia can result.

18

Describe the appearance of a venous thrombus. (3)

Dark red, soft and has a high cell content

19

Describe the appearance of an arterial thrombus. (3)

Pale, granular and has a low cell content.

20

What are the five outcomes of thrombosis?

1. Lysis- breakdown of the thrombus completely.
2. Propagation- spread of the thrombus
3. Organisation- a reparative process in which fibroblasts and capillaries invade, but the obstruction remains.
4. Re canalisation- at least one channels forms through the organising thrombus, but blood flow restoration is only partial.
5. Embolism- part of the thrombus breaks off and travels and lodges at a distant site.

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