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Flashcards in MSK Deck (83):
1

innervation of pec major and minor. Actions?

pec major - lat and med pectoral nerve. flexes, extends, adducts and medially rotates humerus
pec minor - med pec nerves. Stabilises scapula, draws it anterior and inferior

2

subclavius action and innervation

action - anchors and depresses clavicle
innervation - nerve to subclavius

3

function of clavicle

shock absorber, protects neurovascular bundle underneath

4

where do scapula and clavicle join

acromioclavicular joint

5

what are the types of bone and give eg

long (humerus), short (carpals), irregular (eg saccrum or coccyx), sesmoid (patella), flat (occipital)

6

what is an apophysis

normal developmental outgrowth of bones that fuses to bone later in development

7

what is a facet

flattened surface for joint or muscle attachment

8

types of joints and egs

cartilaginous - held by hyaline cartilage e.g. pubic symphysis
fibrous - fibrous CT e.g. sutures
synovial - articular cartilage with synovial capsule in between e.g. knee

9

state anterior forearm muscles and innervation

flexor carpi ulnaris, radialis, flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum P and S, pronator quadratus, pronator teres, palmaris longus

10

state posterior forearm muscles

3x3+3
extensor carpi radialis longus brevis, ulnaris
extensor digiti minimi, indices, digitorum
extensor pollicis longus, brevis, abductor pollicis longus
supinator, brachioradialis, anconeus

11

What are the origins of the brachial plexus nerves - median, musculocutaneous, ulnar, radial, axillary?

median - C5-T1
musculocutaneous - c5-7
radial - c5-t1
ulnar - c8-t1
axillary - C5-6

12

draw brachial plexus

see book

13

what does musculocutaenous innervate

ant muscles of arm - biceps, coracobrachialis and brachialis

14

what does axillary innervate

teres minor, deltoid, GH joint

15

how would you test ulnar, median, radial motor fucntion?

ulnar - test abduction of fingers
medial - test thumb opposition
radial - extend wrist with opposition

16

what innervates the interossei and what is their action

PADDAB
ulnar

17

what are the thenar muscles and their innervation

Abs FOr Ads
abductor pollicis brevis
flexor pollicis brevis
opponens pollicis (median)
Adductor pollicis brevis (ulnar)

18

hypothenar muscles?

Abs FO
no Ads

19

how test carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms?

tinels (tap on nerve and see if pins and needles)
smyptoms - pain and wrist, numbness, atrophy of thenar

20

what goes through carpal tunnel?

FDP, FDS, flexor pollicis, median nerve

21

what causes carpal tunnel?

MEDIAN TRAP
myxoedema, oedema premenstrually, diabetes, idiopathic, acromegaly, neoplasm, trauma, RA, pregnancy

22

what innervates lumbricals? action?

1+2 = median
3+4 = ulnar
bye bye muscle

23

what causes winged scapula? symptoms?

caused by dmg to long thoracic nerve or serratus anterior
symptoms - pain on flexion or abduction of shoulder, scapula border protrudes

24

what is hand of benediction caused by and action?

median damage. lose flexion digits 2 + 3 when trying to make a fist

25

what is the ulnar paradox

ulnar damage more proximal looks better even though worse
because proximal damage takes out half FDP and therefore there is no flexion at distal IP joint of digits 4+5

26

what is ulnar claw

extension at MCP and flexion at distal IP of digits 4+5 when trying to extend

27

if clavicle fractures, where does each part go

lateral displaced downward by weight of arm
medial upwards by pull of SCM

28

how test axillary nerve

abduction of deltoid

29

what does the radial groove contain

radial nerve, deep branch of brachial artery

30

how does supraepicondyle fracture of humerus happen? what is damaged

fall on flexed elbow
damage to brachial artery, median, ulnar, radial nerves

31

what is dislocation and subluxation

dislocation - articular surfaces of joint not in contact
subluxation - partial contact maintained

32

what is exaggerated primary curvature of spine called

kyphosis

33

where are the primary and secondary curvatures of spine found

primary - thoracic and sacral
secondary - cervical and lumbar

34

describe features of cervical vertebrae

bifid spinous process, transverse foramen, large vertebral foramen, smallest size

35

describe features of thoracic vertebrae

demi facets for ribs, small vertebral foramen, medium size

36

describe features of lumbar vertebrae

largest, small triangular vertebral foramen

37

what is scoliosis caused by

unbalanced muscle tonicity

38

what is the elbow joint ligaments

ulnar collateral, radial colateral, articular capsule, annular ligament

39

what is blood supply of elbow

anastamoses of brachial, radial, ulnar arteries

40

what is the type of joint between the radius and ulna

fibrous

41

how do you treat carpal tunnel syndroe

steroid injection, splinting, surgery

42

what is colles and smiths

colles - falling on outstretched hands
smiths - falling on flexed wrists

43

what is bennetts fracture

fracture of 1st base of metacarpal

44

what can cause erbs palsy

wound e.g. gunshot, pulling baby head frist

45

what is mallet finger

damage to extensor digitorum tendon while catching a ball

46

where does axillary artery start and end

start - lateral border of 1st rib from subclavius
end - inferior border of teres major

47

innervations of lat dorsi, trapezius, rhomboids, levator scapulae?

lat d - thoracodorsal nerve
trapezius - spinal accessory
rhomboids and levator - dorsal scapula nerve

48

innervation of subscapularis and teres major

subscapularis - upper and lower subscapular nerves
teres major - lower subscapular nerves

49

borders of anatomical snuffbox

medial - extensor pollicis longus
lateral - abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis
floor - scaphoid

50

what does acetabular notch contain

ligament of head of femur with artery to head of femur

51

what is the blood supply to the acetabulum

medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery with artery to head of femur

52

what is slipped upper femoral epiphysis

fracture through femoral epiphyseal plate and femur rides upwards

53

what happens to the leg in a hip dislocation or fracture

dislocation - shortened and medially rotated
fracture - shortened and laterally rotated

54

what type of fracture is trochanteric and femoral neck fracture?

trochanteric - extra capsular
femoral neck - intracapsular

55

where does inguinal ligament attach

ASIS and pubic tubercle

56

name the bursitises of the hip and a cause

trochanteric - RA
ischogluteal - bike or horse riding
illiopsoas - swelling

57

give the superficial drainage of the lower limb

femoral vein from external iliac. great saphenous vein runs medially from femoral and becomes dorsal venous arch. small saphenous vein starts from popliteal vein and runs posteriorly

58

deep venous drainage of LL

femoral from external iliac. Profunda femoris splits from femoral (drains deep thigh). Femoral --> popliteal --> splits after knee into ant and post tibial vein and fibular vein

59

superficial venous drainage of UL

axillary vein --> basilic, brachial, cephalic. Median cubital connects basilic and cephalic. basilic and cephalic continue to distal arm and hand.

60

deep venous drainage UL

brachial from axillary. Profundia brachial vein splits to drain inner upper arm. brachial --> radial and ulnar/

61

action of fibularis and tibialis

fibularis - eversion
tibialis - inversion

62

innervation of anterior and lateral leg

anterior - deep fibular
lateral leg - superficial fibular

63

name the knee bursae and where found

suprapatellar - rectus femoris and femus
subpatellar - patella and skin
superficial infrapatellar - tibial tuberosity and skin
deep infrapatellar - patella tendon and tibia

64

what is housemaids knee

prepatella bursitis

65

what is the unhappy triad of symptoms and how does it occur

lateral blow to flexed knee
acl, mcl, and medial meniscus tear

66

diagnosis of OA on xray

osteophytes, sclerosis, loss of joint space, bony cysts

67

in what position is ankle stronger?

dorsiflexion

68

what are the ankle ligaments

medial - deltoid ligament (tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, tibiotalar)
lateral - talofibular (anterior and posterior), calcaneofibular

69

what side ankle ligaments are w4eaker

lateral

70

what is the syndesmosis of tibia and fibula made of

ant and post ligament of lateral malleolus and interosseus membrane

71

describe muscles used through the gait cycle

heel strike - glutes and dorsiflexors
loading - quads
stance - plantar flexors and abductors (stability)
pressing - digit flexors and hip flexors
swing - dorsiflexors and hip flexors

72

what are the dermatomes of the lower limb

see session 4 MSK

73

dermatomes of upper limb

see session 4 MSK

74

Name muscles of anterior thigh and action and innervation

all femoral
quadriceps muscles - extend knee joint
sartorius - flex, abduct, lateral rotate hip (cross legs)
pectineus - adduction and flexion of hip
illiopsoas - flexes hip

75

Name muscles of posterior thigh and action and innervation

all sciatic
all flex at knee and extend at hip

76

Name muscles of medial thigh and action and innervation

all obturator nerve
adductor magnus, longus, brevis, gracialis - adducts

77

nerve roots of femoral, obturator and sciatic

femoral and obturator - l2-l4
sciatic - l5-s2

78

muscles of superficial gluteus, innervation and action

maximus - inferior gluteal nerve. Extensor of thigh
medius and minimus - superior gluteal nerve. Abducts and medially rotates lower limb

79

muscles of deep gluteus, innervation and action

All laterally rotate and abduct
Pretty Girls Often Grow Old Quickly
Piriformis - piriformis nerve
Gemelli superior - ob internus
ob internus - ob internus nerve
gemelli inferior - quadratus femoris nerve
ob externus - ob externus nerve
quadratus femoris - quadratus femoris nerve

80

muscles of lateral leg, innervation and action

fibularis longus and brevis
superficial fibular nerve
evert and plantarflex

81

muscles of anterior legm innervation and action

All deep fibular
tibialis anterior - dorsiflexion + inversion
extensor digitorum - extend 4 toes + dorsiflex
extensor hallucis longus - extend big toe + dorsiflex

82

muscles of posterior leg innervation and action

All tibial nerve
gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus - plantarflex
popliteus - laterally rotates femur, pops knee out of locking
tibialis post - inverts + plantarflexes
flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus

83

Order of tendons, arteries and nerves at medial malleolus

Tom, Dick And Nervous Harry - anterior to posterior
tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial artery, tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus