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Flashcards in Music Theory and History Deck (83)
1

Which 18th-century Austrian composer and multi-instrumentalist is famous for works such as "The Marriage of Figaro", "Don Giovanni", and "The Magic Flute?"

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

He was a child prodigy who began composing at a young age and is remembered for composing tirelessly. In spite of his fame, he had little financial security and died of an illness at the age of 35, famously receiving a modest funeral that resulted in his having an unmarked grave in Vienna. Other famous works include his 39th, 40th, and 41st Symphonies.

Excerpt is from "Donna Elvira."

2

Which 19th-century Polish composer's famous works include Sonata No. 2, Movement 3 (Funeral March) and Op. 66 (Fantaisie Impromptu)?

Frederic Chopin

A pianist from age five, many of Chopin's works were written for solo piano.

3

Which 18th- and 19th-century German composer and pianist is best known for works such as "Ode to Joy" and "Fur Elise?"

Ludwig van Beethoven

He is famed for having continued to conduct, perform, and compose music even after becoming deaf. He is also known for the piano sonata "Moonlight" and his Symphony No. 5 in C minor, one of the most famous compositions in classical music (playing now!).

4

What type of music combines a musical score with the text of a play and is usually performed in a theatre accompanied by an orchestra or ensemble?

opera

Opera started near the end of the 16th century and is part of the Western classical music tradition. Well-known opera singers include Luciano Pavarotti, Andrea Bocelli, and Anna Netrebko.  Famous opera composers included Mozart, Rossini, and Bellini.

5

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Toccata and Fugue in D minor by Johann Sebastian Bach

6

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Serenade No. 13 for strings in G major (Eine kleine Nachtmusik) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

7

Which musical era took place between 500–1400 A.D. in the Western world, and is characterized by simple woodwind and string instruments?

Medieval

This was the dawn of music notation. Music of this time was either sacred (religious) or secular (non-religious), and consisted of increasingly complex chants.

8

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Bagatelle No. 25 in A minor (Für Elise) by Ludwig van Beethoven

9

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Adagio for Strings by Samuel Barber

10

Treble clef (G clef)

The treble clef symbol is used to show where the pitch G, denoted by the center spiral, above middle C is located on the staff.  It is also the most common clef in music notation, used by violin, flute, trumpet, and many other instruments.

11

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Fourth Movement (Ode to Joy) by Ludwig van Beethoven

12

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Minuet in G minor by Johann Sebastian Bach

13

Which 19th- and 20th-century Italian opera composer is most famous for operas including La Bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly?

Giacomo Puccini

14

Which musical era took place between 1730–1820 A.D., introducing smaller musical groups such as trios and string quartets, along with lighter, more beautiful compositions?

Classical

Composers of this era include Beethoven and Mozart.

15

Which Italian composer of opera during the Romantic Period is best known for his operas Aida (specifically the "Grand March") and Rigoletto?

Giuseppe Verdi

16

What style of dance music characterized by a heavy bass line originated in Jamaica in the 1960s?

reggae

Reggae borrows stylistically from jazz, rock and roll, and R&B. Bob Marley is arguably the most famous reggae musician of all time.

17

Alto and tenor clef (C clef)

This clef points to the line or space representing middle C. Also called the "alto clef," it is used primarily for the viola.

18

Minim, or half note

 

Note lasting half as long as the semibreve (whole note), and twice as long as the crochet (quarter note), or two beats in 4/4 time.

 

19

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, Op. 46 (In the Hall of the Mountain King) by Edvard Grieg

20

Bass clef (F clef)

The line or space between the dots in this clef denotes F below middle C. This clef is used for instruments such as trombone and tuba.

21

Piano

 
 

Music is to be played softly.

 
 

22

Which musical era took place between 1780–1910 A.D., and focused on themes such as emotion, fantasy, and history?

Romantic

Composers of this era include Chopin, Brahms, and Tchaikovsky.

23

What is the western style of instrumental music with strict musical conventions that has spanned 10 centuries?

classical

Well-known classical artists include Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, and John Williams

24

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Concerto No. 1 in E major, Op. 8, RV 269 (Spring) by Antonio Vivaldi

25

Sharp

Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone, or half step.

26

Which 19th- and 20th-century Romantic composer was inspired by Wagner's music and is most famous for his 5th Symphony?

Gustav Mahler

27

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin

28

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel

29

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

The Marriage of Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

30

Which 19th-century German composer of operas is famous for works such as Bridal Chorus and Ride of the Valkyries?

Richard Wagner

31

Staff or stave

 

The fundamental latticework of music notation, upon which symbols and notes are placed.

32

What type of music blends traditional African American and European music and offen uses a 'call and response' pattern among both string and brass instruments?

blues

Well-known blues artists include Bessie Smith and Muddy Waters.

The 'call and response' pattern has one musician play a musical phrase and a second that then "answers" with a phrase.. 

33

Which type of instrument is played by plucking or moving a bow over a series of strings?

string

String instruments include guitar, violin, and cello.

34

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

The Blue Danube Waltz by Johann Strauss II

35

Which 20th-century American composer is famous for the work 4'33", in which the musicians sit still and do not make a sound for 4 minutes and 33 seconds?

John Cage

He broke from traditional compositions and instruments and began writing electronic music.

36

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Romeo and Juliet by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

37

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Suite No. 3 in D major, Movement No. 2 (Air) by Johann Sebastian Bach

38

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Also Sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss

39

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walküre, Act 3 by Richard Wagner

40

Which 19th-century composer is famous for writing music for The Nutcracker?

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

A gifted pianist, he began taking lessons at age five. Another of his famous works is the well-known ballet, Swan Lake.

41

Which 17th- and 18th-century German composer was best known during his lifetime as an organist, and composed works such as Mass in B minor, The Well-Tempered Clavier, and the Brandenburg concertos?

Johann Sebastian Bach

He only became recognized as a great composer posthumously in the early 19th century.

42

Which 17th- and 18th-century British Baroque composer's most famous work is Messiah (1742)?

George Frideric Handel

43

What is a musical chord?

A chord is a series of three notes in even increments. There is a root note, a third note, and a fifth note. The root note is what the chord is named for (e.g. C major triad has a root note C)

Example: C major triad

44

What instrument group does the piano fall into?

The piano is a percussion instrument.

When a key is depressed, a small hammer strikes a string, creating the sound we hear.

45

Semibreve, or whole note

Note lasting half as long as the breve, and twice as long as the minim (half note), or four beats in 4/4 time.

46

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Symphony No. 7, Movement 2 by Ludwig van Beethoven

47

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Gymnopédie No. 1 by Erik Satie

48

What musical genre generally employs very basic melodic tunes and hooks used in repeated choruses?

 

pop

Also known as popular music, this genre may include characteristics of many others including rock and roll, jazz, hip hop, and electronic music.

49

What is a musical scale?

Notes in ascending or descending order. Scales can be major or minor. Each note has a scale.

Example: C major scale

50

What role does a conductor play?

Conductors wave their arms in patterns to indicate time and tempo of the music. They also cue musicians as to when to begin and stop playing.

51

Natural

Cancels a previous accidental, or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the given key signature.

52

Dotted note

Note lasting the full count of the note, plus half of its value. The quarter note shown would last a total of three eighth notes.

53

Which musical era took place between 1400–1600 A.D. in Europe, when composers of the time began to experiment with musical concepts such as harmony and rhythm?

Renaissance

Music notation became more complex, and music was able to be distributed more easily as a result of the printing press. Instruments began to change form into what we know today. Opera emerged as a genre of music.

54

What type of music emerged in the 20th century that blended American, European, and African music incorporated musical techniques such as syncopation and improvisation?

jazz

Well-known artists include Louis Armstrong, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis.

55

Which type of instrument is commonly made of metal, and produces sound through blown air and lip vibrations?

brass

Brass instruments include trumpet, French horn, trombone, and tuba.

56

What American music genre originated in the 1940s as popular African-American music and was influenced by jazz, blues, soul, and rock and roll?

R&B

The term rhythm and blues has shifted in meaning over time, beginning as blues music in the 50s, moving to include gospel and soul in the 60s, and drifting to soul and funk in the 70s.  By the 80s, elements of pop, rock, and dance music were also under the R&B umbrella. Well-known R&B artists include Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, Michael Jackson, and James Brown.

57

Which american style of music, established in southern states in the early 1900s blending folk and traditional Western music, is now the most popular genre in the U.S.?

country

Well-known atists include Johnny Cash, Brad Paisley, and Florida Georgia Line.

58

What type of popular dance music blends various Cuban and Puerto Rican musical genres?

salsa

The word "salsa" was first heavily used in New York City during the 1970s. Important salsa artists include Johnny Pacheco, Willie Colón, and Héctor Lavoe.

59

Forte

 

Music is to be played loud. 

 

60

Which type of instrument typically produces sound by being struck or shaken?

percussion

Percussion instruments include snare drum, xylophone, timpani, and triangle.

61

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, Op. 46 (Morning Mood) by Edvard Grieg

62

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

William Tell Overture by Gioachino Rossini

63

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Flight of the Bumblebee by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

64

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Symphony No. 5 by Ludwig van Beethoven

65

Flat

Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone, or half step.

66

How many keys does a piano have?

88 keys: 52 white, 36 black

67

Which modern-day composer has written music for famous films, including Jaws, Star Wars, and Harry Potter?

John Williams

Williams has won 22 Grammy awards. His other notable works include scores for Indiana Jones, E.T., Home Alone, Jurassic Park, Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan, and many more, as well as the Olympic games theme music and Sunday Night Football theme music

68

What type of music began in the 1970s and is characterized by beatboxing, scratching, MCing, and rapping? 

hip hop / rap

Well-known artists include The Sugarhill Gang, Nas, and Kanye West.

69

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

O Mio Babbino Caro from Gianni Schicchi by Giacomo Puccini

70

Quaver, or eighth note

 

Note lasting half as long as the crochet (quarter note), and twice as long as the semiquaver (sixteenth note), or a half of a beat in 4/4 time.

 

71

Which musical era took place between 1600–1760 A.D., and is  considered the first era of what we commonly refer to as "classical music?"

Baroque

This era is characterized by elaborate compositions, and includes works by composers such as Bach, Vivaldi, and Handel.

72

What type of music emerged from the 1980s undergound to become popular in the 1990s and is characterized by an edgier guitar sound?

alternative rock

Alternative music is also often associated with subversive lyrics and a defiant attitude toward the mainstream. Well-known alternative artists include The Jesus and Mary Chain, R.E.M., and Radiohead.

73

What type of music is typically made with some type of technological instrument or effect?

electronic

Also commonly referred to as EDM (electronic dance music), the genre includes subgenres such as house, trance, and techno. Artists include Tiesto and Avicil.

74

Which 18th- and 19th-century Austrian composer is famous for both orchestral and choral works, including The Creation and The Seasons?

Franz Joseph Haydn

He was a friend of Mozart and teacher of Beethoven.

75

Which 20th-century Russian composer and conductor's most famous works include music for ballets The Firebird and The Rite of Spring?

Igor Stravinsky

76

Which 19th-century German composer and pianists's most famous works include Hungarian Dances (particularly No. 5) and Op. 49 No. 4 Wiegenlied (Lullaby).

Johannes Brahms

77

Which type of instrument produces sound when air is blown into it, and sometimes requires a wooden reed?

woodwind

Woodwind instruments include flute, clarinet, and saxophone.

78

Crotchet, or quarter note

 

Note lasting half as long as the minim (half note), and twice as long as the quaver (eighth note), or one beat in 4/4 time.

 

79

Which 17th- and 18th-century Italian Baroque composer's most recognizable work is The Four Seasons?

Antonio Vivaldi

80

What type of music that emerged in the United States in the 1950s was first characterized by the use of guitars and a drum set as lead instruments.

rock (and roll)

Rock and roll was based in and influenced by jazz, blues. gospel, and country music, Famous early rock artists included The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, and Queen.

81

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Boléro by Maurice Ravel

82

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

O Fortuna from Carmina Burana by Carl Orff

83

Name this popular work of music and its composer:

Nessun Dorma from Turandot by Giacomo Puccini