progressive decline of cognitive function (impairment of intellect, reason and personality without impairment of consciousness), usually affecting the cortex as a whole (though can sometimes be patchy)
What are the most common causes of dementia?
AD, dementia with lewy bodies, vascular dementia
Describe the symptoms of AD
progressive memory loss, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, depression, behavioural changes
What is pathophysiology of AD?
Neurofibrillary tangles - Twisted filaments of tau protein. Tau stabilises microtubules in cell. Senile plaques - amyloid deposition of aBeta protein.
Symptoms of lewy body dementia?
Fluctuating cognition. More rapid symptoms than AD.
What causes vascular dementia
multiple infarcs in cortex.
What is frontotemporal dementia?
Atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes
What are subcortical encephalopathies
Disorders that affect subcortical structures e.g. huntingtons disease and parkinsons
What are primary progressive aphasia?
language based dementia
How is dementia diagnosed? What is seen on MRI in AD?
History and cognitive testing. MRI - bilateral atrophy of hippocampus in AD.