Neuro-ophthalmic Disease Flashcards Preview

2MB Ophthalmology > Neuro-ophthalmic Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro-ophthalmic Disease Deck (20)
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1

What are the cardinal clinical feature of neuro-ophthalmic disease?

Eye movement defects
Double vision
Visual defect/field loss/decreased acuity

2

What is the most common cause of neuro-ophthalmic disease? List some others too

Vascular disease = most common
Also tumours, trauma, nerve damage, inflammation/infection

3

Which cranial nerves are associated with eye movement?

III
IV
VI

4

CN VI palsy affects which intra-ocular muscle?
What happens to the eye as a result?

Lateral rectus
Eye is pulled inwards/medially (adduction)

5

CN IV palsy affects which intra-ocular muscle?
What happens to the eye as a result?

Superior oblique
Eye is pulled up/superiorly + inwards/medially

6

What are the main causes of CN IV palsy?

Congenital
Microvascular
Tumour
Trauma

7

CN III palsy affects which intra-ocular muscles?

Recti
Inferior oblique
Levator palpebrae superioris
Sphincter pupillae

8

What happens to the eye as a result of CN III palsy?

Eye is pulled downwards/inferiorly + outwards/laterally ("down and out")
Ptosis
Dilated pupil

9

What must be suspected with a painful CN III palsy?

Aneurysm

10

What must be suspected with a CN VI palsy?

Increased cranial pressure

11

What is inter-nuclear ophthalmoplegia?

Impairment of horizontal eye movement (failure of adduction of affected eye)
e.g. looking left, the left eye abducts with nystagmus but right eye cannot adduct pass the midline

12

What is the medial longitudinal fasciculus and how does it relate to inter-nuclear ophthalmoplegia?

Connection between 3rd and 6th CN, allowing communication
In INO this is damaged

13

List the order of the optic pathway

Optic nerve
Optic chiasma
Optic tracts
Optic radiations
Cortex

14

What is the major cause of inter-nuclear ophthalmoplegia?

Multiple sclerosis

15

A defect of the left optic nerve will only cause visual loss in the left eye. True/False?

True

16

A defect in the optic chiasma will cause what type of visual loss?

Bitemporal hemianopia

17

Describe visual loss caused by a defect of the left optic tract

Nasal visual loss of left eye
Temporal visual loss of right eye

18

Describe visual loss caused by a defect of the left optic radiation

Superonasal visual loss of left eye
Superotemporal visual loss of right eye

19

Describe visual loss caused by a defect of the left cerebral cortex

Nasal visual loss of left eye
Temporal visual loss of right eye
N.B. macula-sparing

20

List the main causes of optic nerve damage

Optic neuropathy
Optic neuritis
Tumours