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Flashcards in Neuro - Pathology Deck (137)
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1

A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. What do the characteristic periventricular plaques on her MRI represent?

Areas of oligodendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis

2

Identify the histologic findings of this biopsy sample from an oligodendroglioma.

Fried egg cells (i.e., round nuclei with clear cytoplasm) and a chicken-wire capillary pattern

3

Identify the brain tumor associated with this MRI demonstrating a tumor in the cerebral hemispheres, crossing the corpus callosum.

Glioblastoma multiforme

4

What is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly?

Alzheimer's disease

5

Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characterize what type of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

6

The genes APP, presenilin-1, presenilin-2, and ApoE4 are associated with the familial form of what type of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease

7

Alzheimer's disease may cause amyloid angiopathy, which may result in what serious complication?

Intracranial hemorrhage

8

What is the difference between the Apo isoforms E2 and E4 in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease?

The E4 isoform is a genetic risk factor for familial Alzheimer's disease, whereas the E2 isoform is protective against Alzheimer's disease

9

What is the second most common cause of dementia in the elderly after Alzheimer's Disease?

Multi-infarct dementia

10

What degenerative disease of the cerebral cortex affects only the frontal and temporal lobes?

Pick's disease

11

An elderly woman is increasingly socially inappropriate and inattentive, and she has difficulty speaking. What type of dementia is most likely to cause this her decrement in executive functioning?

Pick's disease

12

What degenerative disease of the cerebral cortex is caused by an -synuclein defect?

Lewy body dementia

13

_____ bodies are characterized by intracellular aggregated τ-protein in neurons.

Pick

14

What degenerative disease of the cerebral cortex is associated with a rapidly progressive dementia (occurring over weeks to months), myoclonus, and a spongiform cortex?

Creutzfeld-Jakob disease

15

What degenerative disease of the cerebral cortex is characterized by parkinsonism, dementia, and hallucinations?

Lewy body dementia

16

Name the pathologic proteins responsible for Creutzfeld-Jakob disease.

Prions

17

The intracellular neurofibrillary tangles found in patients with Alzheimer's disease are commonly made up of abnormally phosphorylated _____ protein.

τ

18

What proportion of patients with Alzheimer;s disease have the familial form?

Approximately 10%

19

What potentially treatable forms of dementia must be ruled out before diagnosing a patient with Alzheimer's disease?

Wilson's disease, vitamin B12 deficiency, syphilis, and HIV

20

What will cerebrospinal fluid studies of a patient with multiple sclerosis show?

Increased immunoglobulin G protein; oligoclonal bands are considered diagnostic of multiple sclerosis

21

A patient presents with sudden loss of vision, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, hemiparesis, and bladder incontinence. What disease does she most likely have?

Multiple sclerosis

22

Histologically, what are the periventricular plaques seen in multiple sclerosis?

Areas of oligodendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis

23

Name five classic symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Use the mnemonic, SIN.

Scanning speech, Intention tremor, Incontinence, Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, Nystagmus

24

What is the treatment for multiple sclerosis?

-Interferon or immunosuppressant therapy, as well as symptomatic treatment for incontinence, pain, and spasticity

25

Which imaging modality is considered diagnostic of multiple sclerosis if it has a characteristic appearance?

Magnetic resonance imaging

26

Multiple sclerosis causes damage to which of the following: axons, neuron cell bodies, myelin?

Myelin only

27

What demographic group is most likely to be affected by multiple sclerosis (race, sex and age)?

White women 20-40 years of age

28

Is the course of multiple sclerosis usually rapidly progressive, chronic, insidious, or relapsing and remitting?

Relapsing and remitting

29

What syndrome is characterized by symmetric ascending muscle weakness that begins in the distal lower extremities and that typically occurs after or concurrent with an infection?

Guillain-Barr syndrome

30

What is the mechanism by which the immune system is induced to destroy myelin in Guillan-Barr syndrome?

Molecular mimicry