Organic Chemistry- Analyzing Organic Reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry- Analyzing Organic Reactions Deck (165)
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1

In an acid-base reaction, what happens?

An acid and base react, resulting in the formation of the conjugagate base of the acid and the conjugate acid of the base.

2

The acid base reaction procees as long as what?

The reactants are more reactive, or stronger, than the products that they form

3

The lewis acid/base defintion concerns itself with what?

Transfer of electrons in the formation of coordinate covalent bands.

4

The bronsted-lowry definition of acid/base concerns itself with what?

Proton transfer

5

What is a Lewis acid?

An electron acceptor in the formation of a covalent bond

6

Lewis acids tend to be _____ and have ____

Electrophiles
They have vacant p-orbitals into which they can accept an electron pair, or are positively polarized atoms.

7

What is a Lewis base?

An electron donor in the formation of covalent bonds

8

Lewis bases tend to be _____ and have _____.

Nucleophiles.
They have a lone pair of electrons that can be donated, and are often anions carrying a negative charge.

9

When Lewis acids and bases interact, they form what?

Coordinate covalent bonds

10

What are coordinate covalent bonds?

Both electrons in the bond came from the same starting atom (the Lewis base)

11

What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid and base?

An acid is a species that can donate a proton (H+)
A base is a species that can a ccept a proton

12

Water is ______ which means it has the ability to what?

Amphhoteric
The ability to act as either Bronsted-Lowry acids or bases

13

Water can only act like a base in _____, and can only act like an acid in _______.

Act as a base in acidic solutions
And acid in basic solutions

14

What are other examples of amphoteric molecules?

Al(OH)3
HCO3-
HSO4-

15

What is the acid dissociation constant?

Ka, measures the strength of an acid in solution

16

What equation is used to determine the acid dissocation constant of acid HA
HA H+ + A-

Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA]

17

How do you find the pKa of an acid HA?

pKa = -logKa

18

More acidic molecules will have _______ pKa, more basic molecules will have a __________ pKa

Smaller (or negative) pKa
Larger (positive) pKa

19

Acids with a pKa below -2 are considered what?

Strong acids, which alwmost always dissociates completely in aqueaous solution

20

Weak organic acids often have pKa values between _____ and _____pKa

-2 and 20

21

What is the pKa of Alkane?

-50

22

What is the pKa of alkene?

-43

23

What is the pKa of hydrogen?

42

24

What is the pKa of amine?

-35

25

What is the pKa of alkyne?

25

26

What is the pKa of Ester?

25

27

What is the pKa of ketone/aldehyde?

20-24

28

What is the pKa of alcohol?

17

29

What is the pKa of water?

16

30

What is the pKa of carboxylic acid?

4