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Flashcards in Osteology Deck (68):
1

What are the four basic tissues of the human body?

Epithelial
Muscle
Neural
Connective

2

What is osteology?

The study of bone

3

What are the three primary cell types of bone?

Osteoblasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts

4

What is the function of each type of bone cell?

Osteoblast = form bone
Osteocyte = maintain or nurture bone
Osteoclast = remodel bone

5

What are the bone cells embedded in?

An amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

6

What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?

Glycosaminoglycans

7

What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?

Chondroitin sulfates
Keratin sulfates
Hyaluronic acid

8

What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?

Collagen type I

9

What are the primary constituents of the bone mineral?

Calcium ions
Phosphate ions
Citrate ions
Carbonate ions

10

What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

Hydroxyapatite

11

Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?

Sodium
Magnesium
Fluoride
Lead
Strontium
Radium

12

What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?

Living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to stress

13

What are the three responses of bone that allow it to be described as "living"?

It has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and age

14

What is bone the embryological derivative of?

Mesenchyme
Cartilage

15

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

Intramembranous ossification

16

What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?

From the second to third month in utero

17

What bones are derived from intramembranous ossification?

Nasal, palatine, vomer, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, frontal, parietal, most of mandible and clavicle, squama of the temporal and occipital bone, greater wing of the sphenoid

18

Which bones of the neurocranium are formed by intramembranous ossification?

Frontal, parietal, squama of temporal and occipital bones, greater wing of sphenoid

19

What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

Endochondral ossification

20

What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

From the second to fifth month in utero

21

What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

Chondrocranium

22

Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?

The clavicle

23

What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?

Primary centers of ossification appear before birth
Secondary centers of ossification appear after birth

24

Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?

Cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone

25

What is the name given to the below the articulating surface?

Subchondral bone

26

What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?

The periosteum

27

What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?

The endosteum

28

What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

Sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)

29

Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?

Sexual dimorphism or gender variation

30

What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?

Patella
Pisiform

31

What are the types of osseous elevations?

Linear
Rounded
Sharp

32

What are the types of osseous linear elevation?

Line
Ridge
Crest

33

What is an example of an osseous ridge elevation?

Sacral transverse ridges

34

What are the types of rounded osseous tubercle?

Tubercle
Protuberance
Trochanter
Tuber or tuberosity
Malleolus

35

What is the definition of an osseous malleolus?

A hammerhead-like elevation on the surface of bone

36

What are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?

Spine
Process

37

What is the definition of the osseous elevation called "spine?"

A thorn-like elevation from the surface of bone

38

What is the definition of an osseous process?

A relatively sharp bony projection from the surface of bone with an increased length

39

What are the categories of osseous depressions?

Linear depressions
Rounded depressions

40

What are the categories of osseous linear depressions?

Notch or incisure
Groove
Sulcus

41

What is the definition of an osseous groove?

A long furrow of variable depth on the surface of bone

42

What is the definition of an osseous sulcus?

A wide groove of variable length and depth on the surface of bone

43

What are the categories of rounded osseous depression?

Fovea
Fossa

44

What is the definition of an osseous fovea?

A shallow depression of variable circumference on the surface of bone

45

What is the definition of an osseous fossa?

A deep depression of variable circumference on the surface of bone

46

What are the names given to openings on the surface of bone?

Ostium or orifice
Hiatus

47

What is the definition of an osseous hiatus?

An irregular opening on the surface of bone

48

What are the names given to the osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?

Foramen or canal

49

What is the definition of an osseous foramen?

An ostium passing completely through a thin region of bone

50

What is the definition of an osseous canal?

An ostium passing completely through a thick region of bone

51

What is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?

Meatus

52

What is the definition of an osseous fissure?

An irregular slit-like or crack-like appearance between the surfaces of adjacent bones

53

What are the categories of osseous facets?

Flat facets
Rounded facets

54

What are examples of a flat osseous facet?

Articular facets of most zygapophyses of the vertebral column

55

What are the categories of rounded osseous facets?

Articular heads
Articular condyles

56

What is the definition of an osseous condyle?

A knuckle-shaped surface on bone for osseous identification

57

What bones form the axial skeleton?

Skull
Hyoid
Vertebral column
Sternum
Ribs

58

What is the name given to the adult skull minus the mandible?

Cranium

59

What are the names given to the top of the adult skull?

Calvaria or calva

60

What is the total number of bones forming the typical adult skull?

28

61

How many bones form the typical adult neurocranium?

8

62

How many bones form the facial skeleton (splanchnocranium or visceral skeleton)?

14

63

What is the name given to the presacral region of the typical adult vertebral column or spinal column?

Spine

64

What is the total number of bones forming the typical adult spine?

24

65

What is the definition of "spine" as it pertains to the vertebral column?

Pre-sacral region of the vertebral column or spinal column

66

How many bones are present in the typical adult sternum?

1

67

What regions are present along the typical adult sternum?

Manubrium sterni
Corpus sterni
Xiphoid process

68

How many ribs are present in the typical adult skeleton?

12 pair or 24 ribs