Flashcards in Osteology Deck (68):
What are the four basic tissues of the human body?
What is osteology?
The study of bone
What are the three primary cell types of bone?
What is the function of each type of bone cell?
Osteoblast = form bone
Osteocyte = maintain or nurture bone
Osteoclast = remodel bone
What are the bone cells embedded in?
An amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals
What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?
What types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bone?
What is the principal type of protein fiber in bone?
Collagen type I
What are the primary constituents of the bone mineral?
What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?
Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?
What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?
Living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to stress
What are the three responses of bone that allow it to be described as "living"?
It has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and age
What is bone the embryological derivative of?
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?
What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?
From the second to third month in utero
What bones are derived from intramembranous ossification?
Nasal, palatine, vomer, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, frontal, parietal, most of mandible and clavicle, squama of the temporal and occipital bone, greater wing of the sphenoid
Which bones of the neurocranium are formed by intramembranous ossification?
Frontal, parietal, squama of temporal and occipital bones, greater wing of sphenoid
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?
What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?
From the second to fifth month in utero
What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?
Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?
What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?
Primary centers of ossification appear before birth
Secondary centers of ossification appear after birth
Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?
Cortical or compact bone and spongy, cancellous, or trabecular bone
What is the name given to the below the articulating surface?
What is the name of the outer fibro-cellular covering of bone?
What is the name given to the fibro-cellular lining of bone?
What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?
Sexual dimorphism (gender variation), ontogenetic variation (growth or age variation), geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation) and idiosyncratic variation (individual variation)
Differences in the number or morphology of vertebrae within the population based on male and female variation is identified as which type of variation?
Sexual dimorphism or gender variation
What are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?
What are the types of osseous elevations?
What are the types of osseous linear elevation?
What is an example of an osseous ridge elevation?
Sacral transverse ridges
What are the types of rounded osseous tubercle?
Tuber or tuberosity
What is the definition of an osseous malleolus?
A hammerhead-like elevation on the surface of bone
What are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?
What is the definition of the osseous elevation called "spine?"
A thorn-like elevation from the surface of bone
What is the definition of an osseous process?
A relatively sharp bony projection from the surface of bone with an increased length
What are the categories of osseous depressions?
What are the categories of osseous linear depressions?
Notch or incisure
What is the definition of an osseous groove?
A long furrow of variable depth on the surface of bone
What is the definition of an osseous sulcus?
A wide groove of variable length and depth on the surface of bone
What are the categories of rounded osseous depression?
What is the definition of an osseous fovea?
A shallow depression of variable circumference on the surface of bone
What is the definition of an osseous fossa?
A deep depression of variable circumference on the surface of bone
What are the names given to openings on the surface of bone?
Ostium or orifice
What is the definition of an osseous hiatus?
An irregular opening on the surface of bone
What are the names given to the osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?
Foramen or canal
What is the definition of an osseous foramen?
An ostium passing completely through a thin region of bone
What is the definition of an osseous canal?
An ostium passing completely through a thick region of bone
What is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?
What is the definition of an osseous fissure?
An irregular slit-like or crack-like appearance between the surfaces of adjacent bones
What are the categories of osseous facets?
What are examples of a flat osseous facet?
Articular facets of most zygapophyses of the vertebral column
What are the categories of rounded osseous facets?
What is the definition of an osseous condyle?
A knuckle-shaped surface on bone for osseous identification
What bones form the axial skeleton?
What is the name given to the adult skull minus the mandible?
What are the names given to the top of the adult skull?
Calvaria or calva
What is the total number of bones forming the typical adult skull?
How many bones form the typical adult neurocranium?
How many bones form the facial skeleton (splanchnocranium or visceral skeleton)?
What is the name given to the presacral region of the typical adult vertebral column or spinal column?
What is the total number of bones forming the typical adult spine?
What is the definition of "spine" as it pertains to the vertebral column?
Pre-sacral region of the vertebral column or spinal column
How many bones are present in the typical adult sternum?
What regions are present along the typical adult sternum?