Flashcards in Osteology Deck (35)
What are the four basic tissues in the human body?
Epithelial, Muscle, Neural, Connective tissues
What is the function of each type of bone cell?
Osteoblast- form bone
Osteocyte- maintain or nurture bone
Osteoclast- remodel bone
What are the bone cells embedded in?
An amorphous mixture consisting of a ground substance, protein fibers, and various mineral
What is the primary constituent of the ground substance?
What is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?
Collagen Type I
What is the most frequently described deposit in bone?
What is Wolff's Law as it pertains to bone?
Living tissue will respond to stressors, bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors
What three responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?
it has the ability to heal, to remodel under stressors, and to age
Bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?
Mesenchyme and/or Cartilage
What is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?
What is the timing for the appearance of intramembranous ossification?
From the second to third month in utero
What part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?
Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?
What is the name given for the patter of ossification in cartilage?
What is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?
from the second to fifth month in utero
What part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?
What are the names given to the centers of ossification based on time of appearance?
Primary centers of ossification appear before birth
Secondary centers of ossification appear after birth
What are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?
Sexual Dimorphism (gender variation)
Ontogenetic Variation (growth/age variation)
Geographic or population-based variation (ethnic variation)
Idiosyncratic Variation (Individual Variation)
What is osteology?
The study of bone
What are the three primary cell types of bone?
Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
what types of glycosaminoglycans predominate in bones?
Chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, hyaluronic acid
What the primary constituents of the bone mineral?
calcium, phosphate, citrate, and carbonate ions
Bone is also the repository for what additional ions?
Sodium, magnesium, flouride, lead, strontium, and radium
Which of the skull bones are derived from intramembranous ossifications?
the nasal, palatine, vomer, lacrimal, zygomatic, maxilla, frontal, parietal, most of the mandible, the squama of the temporal and occipital bones & greater wing of the sphenoid
What bones are formed from the chondrocranium?
The inferior nasal concha, ethmoid, and remainder of mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones
Which skull one are ossified by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?
The mandible, sphenoid, temporal and occipital bones
Which bone of the appendicular skeleton is formed by both endochondral and intramembranous ossification?
Mature bone is described as being composed of what areas based on bone density?
Cortical and compact and spongy, cancellous or trabecular
What is the name given to the bone below an articulating surface?