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Flashcards in Parasitology Deck (254):
1

Permanent association of 2 organisms that cannot exist independently

Symbiosis

2

Relationship beneficial to both associates

Mutualism

3

Hosts that transmit parasite to man

Vectors

4

Vectors that are essential to life

Biologic vectors

5

Vectors that are non-essential to life

Phoretic or mechanical vectors

6

Parasites that infest (live on the outside)

Ectoparasite

7

Parasites that infect (live within the body of host)

Endoparasite

8

Parasites that are capable of leading both free and parasitic existence

Facultative or opportunistic

9

Take up permanent residence and completely upon host cell

Obligate parasite

10

Establishes itself in a host in which it does not ordinarily live

Incidental parasite

11

Free-living during part of its existence and seeks host intermittently to obtain nourishment

Temporary parasite

12

Causes injury to host

Pathogenic parasite

13

Foreign species passing through alimentary tract without infecting the host

Coprozoic or spurious

14

Individual harbouring the parasite is reinfected by THE SAME SPECIES

Superinfection

15

Infected person is his own direct source of reexposure

Autoinfection

16

Harbors adult or sexual stages

Final or definitive host

17

Harbors asexual or larval stage

Intermediate host

18

Harbors arrested phase of parasite development

Paratenic host

19

Host that is not essential to development of parasite

Incidental host

20

Harbors infection with production of little or no damage and without symptoms

Carrier

21

Most dreaded complication of E. histolytica

Amebic pericarditis

22

E. histolytica most commonly disseminate to

Liver via portal vein

23

Most common site of E. histolytica in liver

Posteroinferior lobe

24

Nonpathogenic ameba

Entamoeba coli

25

Found in pyorrheal pockets between gums and in tonsillar crypts

Entamoeba gingivalis

26

Lumen dweller in cecum

Endolimax nana
Iodameba butschlii

27

Ring and dot appearance of nuclei, peripheral chromatin, and central karyosome

E. histolytica

28

Characeteristic glycogen vacuoles in the cyst stage

Iodamoeba butchlii

29

Brain-eating amoeba

Naegleria fowleri

30

Free-living amoeba

Naegleria fowleri
Acanthamoeba

31

The only ciliate that parasitises man

Balantidium coli

32

Anchovy paste abscess

E. histolytica (liver)

33

Flask-like lesion of E. histolytica is due to

Submucosal invasion

34

DOC for E. histolytica

Metronidazole

35

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

Naegleria fowleri

36

DOC for Balantidium coli

Iodoquinol

37

Lemon- or pear-shaped parasite with a nipple-like protruberance

Chilomastix mesnili

38

Falling leaf motility

Giardia lamblia

39

Amoeba, neurologic symptoms seen with a rapid course, death occurring 4-5 days after onset of symptoms

Naegleria fowleri

40

DOC of Naegleria fowleri

Amphotericin B

41

Largest protozoan ciliophora

Balantidium coli

42

Shepherd's crook appearance

Chilomastix mesnili

43

Villous atrophy >> malabsorption, steatorrhea, lactose intolerance, flatulence

G. lamblia

44

DOC for G. lamblia

Quinacrine HCl

45

Acute vaginitis with yellow-green discharge

T. vaginalis

46

DOC for T. vaginalis

Metronidazole

47

Longest tapeworm

D. latum

48

Enterotest capsule

G. lamblia

49

Strawberry cervix

T. vaginalis

50

Type of anemia in D. latum infection

Megaloblastic anemia (Vitamin B12 deficiency)

51

Waterlily sign

Hydatid cyst of E. granulosus

52

Definitive host of E. granulosus

Dogs/sheep

53

Rosette appearance of gravid uterus

D. latum

54

Raw or undercooked beef may harbour what stage of T. saginata

Larvae (cysticercus)

55

MCC of splenic cyst

Hydatid cyst of E. granulosus

56

Definitive host of T. saginata

Humans

57

Oval eggs with lid-like operculum

D. latum
Fasciola
Fasciolopsis
Clonorchis

58

Dog tapeworm

E. granulosus

59

Fish tapeworm

D. latum

60

MC site of hydatid cyst

Liver

61

Copepods are first intermediate host

D. latum

62

Definitive host of T. solium

Humans

63

Intermediate host of T. saginata

Cattle

64

Intermediate host of T. solium

Pig

65

T/F Encysted larva of taenia migrate to encyst in muscles/brain of humans

F, cattle and pigs and then ingested by humans from undercooked meat of these animals

66

Stage in life cycle of Taenia that is ingested causing neurocysticercosis

Eggs

67

Dwarf tapeworm

Hymenolepis nana

68

Giant intestinal fluke

Fasciolopsis buski

69

Rostellar hooklets

T. solium

70

MC parasitic brain infection in the world

Neurocysticercosis

71

DOC for Taenia infection

Praziquantel

72

MC tapeworm infection

H. nana

73

Hen's egg-shaped ova

F. buski

74

Oral sucker surrounded by colarette of spines

E. ilocanum

75

Intermediate host of E. ilocanum

Pila luzonica

76

Smallest but deadliest trematode

H. heterophyes (cardiac failure)

77

Ingestion of metacercaria encysted on fresh water vegetation

F. buski
F. hepatica

78

Fatal complication of H. heterophyes

Cardiac failure/cardiac beriberi

79

Sheep liver fluke

Fasciola hepatica

80

Intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica

Snail

81

Intermediate host of F. buski

Snail

82

Where F. hepatica resides in definitive hosts

Biliary tract

83

Where F. buski resides in definitive hosts

Duodenum

84

DOC for F. hepatica

Triclabendazole

85

Freshwater fish

C. sinensis

86

Predator fish

D. latum

87

DOC for C. sinensis

Praziquantel

88

Lung fluke

P. westermani

89

Usual mode of diagnosis of P. westermani

Eggs in sputum

90

Ova looks like old-fashioned light bulb

C. sinensis

91

DOC for P. westermani

Praziquantel

92

Parasite that mimics PTb

P. westermani

93

Oriental liver fluke

C. sinensis

94

Large lateral spine

S. mansoni

95

Very small lateral spine

S. japonicum

96

Oriental lung fluke

P. westermani

97

Katayama reaction

Schistosomes; first seen in S. japonicum; Similar to serum sickness; Ag-Ab reaction with increased IgE and IgG against eggs of parasite (1500-3500 eggs per day!)

98

Intermediate host of S. japonicum

Oncomelania quadrasi snail (oncomelania hupensis quadrasi) !!! Important !!! Philippines

99

Adult habitat of S. japonicum

Superior mesenteric veins

100

Ingestion of inadequately cooked or pickled crustaceans (crabs and crayfish)

P. westermani

101

Circum Oval Precipitin Test (COPT)

S. japonicum

102

DOC for all species of schistosoma

Praziquantel

103

Swimmer's itch

S. mekongi

104

Endemic in Leyte

S. japonicum

105

Adult habitat of S. mansoni

Inferior mesenteric vein

106

Old world hookworm

Ancylostoma duodenale

107

New world hookworm

Necator americanus

108

Hookworm with prominent teeth

A. duodenale

109

Hookworm with cutting plates

N. americanus

110

Type of anemia caused by hookworms

IDA

111

MC parasitic infection in the Phils

A. lumbricoides

112

Major damage caused by A. lumbricoides is due to

Migration (rather than presence in the intestine)

113

T/F Most ascaris infections are asymptomatic

T

114

Ground itch

Hookworms

115

Giant worm

A. lumbricoides

116

Roundworm known to cause autoinfection

E. vermicularis

117

Roundworm known to cause internal autoinfection

S. stercoralis

118

Most common helminth in the US

E. vermicularis

119

Largest intestinal roundworm

A. lumbricoides

120

Threadworm

E. vermicularis

121

Dwarf threadworm

S. stercoralis

122

S. stercoralis infective stage

Filariform larva

123

S. stercoralis diagnostic stage

Rhabditiform larva

124

Wandering behavior

A. lumbricoides

125

Larva currens

S. stercoralis

126

Gold standard for diagnosis of trichinosis

Muscle biopsy

127

Whipworm

Trichuris trichiura

128

MCC of Loeffler syndrome

A. lumbricoides

129

Bentonite flocculation test

T. spiralis

130

Harada mori culture technique

S. stercoralis

131

Habitat of T. trichiura in humans

Cecum and ascending colon

132

Transient respiratory illness associated with blood eosinophilia and radiographic shadowing

Loeffler syndrome

133

Bachman intradermal test

T. spiralis

134

Rectal prolapse

T. trichiura

135

Deerfly

Loaloa

136

River blindness

O. volvulus

137

Calabar swelling

Loaloa (swelling and edema in subcutaneous tissue)

138

Ova with bipolar plugs

1) T. trichiura: Japanese lantern, football-shaped, barrel-shaped, lemon-shaped
2) C. philippinensis

139

Worm crawling on conjunctiva

Loaloa

140

DOC for loaloa

DEC

141

Mazzotti reaction

O. volvulus (local/systemic reactions upon treatment with DEC)

142

Treatment for loaloa in the eye

Surgical excision

143

Treatment for microfilaria of O. volvulus

Ivermectin

144

Treatment for adult worms of O. volvulus

Suramin

145

Filariasis

W. bancrofti

146

Pointed tail contains nuclei

Loaloa

147

Blackflies of the genus Simulium

O. volvulus

148

Pointed tail free of nuclei

W. bancrofti

149

Vectors of W. bancrofti

Anopheles
Aedes
Culex
Mansonia

150

Vector that transmits the infection lives and breeds near fast-flowing streams and rivers and the infection can result in blindness

O. volvulus

151

Treatment for O. volvulus microfilaria

DEC

152

Malayan lymphatic filariasis

B. malayi

153

Vectors of B. malayi

Aedes
Mansonia

154

B. malayi vs onchocerca: More in children

B. malayi

155

B. malayi vs onchocerca: More rapid course

B. malayi

156

Nocturnal periodicity

B. malayi and W. bancrofti (blood smears should be taken at night

157

DOC for B. malayi

DEC

158

Guinea worm

D. medinensis

159

Treatment of D. medinensis

Manual extraction of worm

160

Dog hookworm

Ancylostoma caninum

161

Cat hookworm

Ancylostoma braziliense

162

T/F Ancylostoma caninum and braziliense can complete their lifecycle in humans

F

163

Most serious finding in toxocara infection

Blindness (retinal involvement)

164

Prevention of toxocara infection

Deworming of dogs (Toxocara canis: Visceral larva migrans)

165

Pudoc worm

Capillaria philippinensis

166

Creeping reaction

Cutaneous larva migrans (ancylostoma caninum/braziliense)

167

DOC for C. philippinensis

Mebendazole

168

Diagnostic stage of T. cruzi

C-shaped trypomastigote

169

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Leishmania tropica

170

Small whipworm

Capillaria philippinensis

171

Dumdum fever

Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis; lesihmania donovani)

172

Romana sign

Chagoma of T. cruzi

173

American leishmaniasis

Leishmania braziliensis

174

Fish-eating birds are natural hosts

Capillaria philippinensis

175

DOC for Leishamnia

Na Stibogluconate

176

Unilateral painless periorbital swelling

Romana sign/Chagoma; T. cruzi

177

Espundia

Leishmania braziliensis

178

Intestinal gurgling (borborygmi)

C. philippinensis

179

MOA of Na Stibogluconate in treatment of leishmania

Inhibits PFK in the worm

180

Montenegro test

Leishmania

181

Peanut shell ova

C. philippinensis

182

Glossina

African sleeping sickness (tsetse fly)

183

Vector of malaria in the Philippines

Anopheles flavirostris

184

Stages of malaria

Cold stage (20 mins-1 hour)
Hot stage (1-4 hours)
Sweating stage(2-3 hours)

185

Total duration of febrile cycle of malaria

6-10 hours

186

Fever synchronises with that parasitic activity

Erythrocytic schizogony

187

Factors that provide resistance to malaria

G6PD deficiency
Hgb S (sickle cell anemia), C, or E
Thalassemia
Southeast asian ovalocytosis
Duffy blood group negative

188

Blackwater fever

P. falciparum, due to DIC and intravascular hemolysis

189

Plasmodium that naturally infects macaques and causes zoonotic malaria in humans

P. knowlesi

190

MC causative agent of malaria in the Phils

P. falciparum

191

MC causative agent of malaria in Africa

P. falciparum

192

Most prevalent human malaria parasite

P. vivax

193

Plasmodium that causes pernicious anemia

P. falciparum

194

Plasmodium that can infect individuals who are negative for the Duffy blood group

P. ovale

195

3-day cycle

Quartan (paroxysm every 4 days)

196

2-day cycle

Tertian (paroxysm every 3 days)

197

Significant plasmodium in Malaysia

P. knowlesi

198

Parasitizes red cells of all ages

P. falciparum

199

Parasitizes young red cells (reticulocytes)

P. vivax
P. ovale

200

Transfusion malaria

P. vivax

201

Plasmodium, nephrotic syndrome

P. malariae

202

Parasitizes older red cells

P. malariae

203

Enlarged infected red cells

P. vivax

204

Daisy schizont

P. malariae

205

Plasmodium with lowest parasitemia

P. malariae

206

Plasmodium with highest parasitemia

P. falciparum

207

Recrudescence

P. malariae

208

Gametocyte, compact

P. malariae

209

Gametocyte, large round

P. vivax

210

Phenomenon in malarial infection wherein there is recurrence of a disease after it is thought to be resolved; in which the parasite responsible for the disease can remain present in the blood in low numbers, flaring up again in days, weeks, and sometimes months

Recrudescence

211

Occurs earlier, recrudescence vs relapse

Recrudescence

212

Sometimes confused as a reinfection, recrudescence vs relapse

Recrudescence

213

T/F When a recrudescence appears, it is treated like the primary infection

T

214

Gametocyte, small round

P. ovale

215

Plasmodium, asexual phase

Schizogony

216

Plasmodium, sexual phase

Sporogony

217

T/F Human is definitive host of Plasmodium spp

F, intermediate host

218

Plasmodium, infective stage to human

Sporozoite

219

Plasmodium, infective stage to mosquito

Gametocyte

220

Malaria, rupture of liver cells release

Merozoites

221

Plasmodium, infective stage to RBCs

Merozoites

222

Preferred staining method for Cryptosporidium

Kinyoun stain

223

DOC for Cryptosporidium

Spiramycin

224

Cat feces

T. gondii

225

Ig increased in congenital toxoplasmosis

IgM

226

Characteristics of Saboraud agar

Low pH (Acidic)
Chloramphenicol
Cycloheximide

227

Cutaneous mycoses

Dermatophytes (MET)
M. furfur
C. werneckii

228

Subcutaneous mycoses

S. schenckii
Chromomycosis-causing fungi
Mycetoma
Fonsecaea
Phialophora
Cladosporium

229

Sabin Feldman dye test

T. gondii

230

DOC for T. gondii

TMP-SMX

231

Systemic mycoses

Histoplasmosis
Coccidioidomycosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Blastomycosis

232

Opportunistic mycoses

Candida
Cryptococcus
Aspergillosis
Mucor/Rhizopus

233

Ringworm of glabrous skin

T. corporis

234

DOC of M. furfur

Topical miconazole

235

MCC of outbreaks of tinea capitis

T. tonsurans

236

Cause of favus

T. schoenlenii

237

>90 degree branching

Mucor/Rhizopus

238

Main cause of endothrix

T. tonsurans

239

Flowerette arrangement of conidia

S. schenckii

240

Packets of cigar

M. leprae

241

Opportunistic fungus assoc with ketoacidosis

Mucor/Rhizopus

242

CALAS

Cryptococcus (cryptococcus antigen latex agglutination)

243

Mold in soil, spherule in tissue

C. immitis

244

DOC of C. immitis

Fluconazole

245

Opportunistic fungus assoc with leukemia

Mucor/Rhizopus

246

MCC of fungal meningitis

C. neoformas

247

Highest endemism in semiarid areas (dessert sand)

C. immitis

248

Black nasal discharge

Mucor/Rhizopus

249

Spelunker's disease (caving)

H. capsulatum, from guano

250

Dichotomously-branching hyphae

Aspergillus fumigatus

251

Barrel-shaped arthroconidia

C. immitis

252

Fungus that resembles Ptb in xray

H. capsulatum

253

MC opportunistic fungi

Candida albicans

254

Bilharziasis

Schistosomiasis