Part 2- Antimicrobial, antiseptic etc Flashcards Preview

Fall'20 Pharmacology III > Part 2- Antimicrobial, antiseptic etc > Flashcards

Flashcards in Part 2- Antimicrobial, antiseptic etc Deck (94)
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1

what ABX do we use to treat syphilis

PCN-highly effective

2

Higher doses of this drug is needed to treat gonococci due to resistance

PCN

3

PCN is the drug choice for these 5 infections

pneumococcal
streptococcal
meningococcal
Treating all forms of actinomycosis and clostridial infections causing gas gangrene

4

prophylactic administration of PCN is highly effective against ___infection

streptococcal infections, accounting for its value in pts with rheumatic fever

5

Clinical indications for PCN

Transient bacteremia occurs in the majority of patients undergoing dental extractions, emphasizing prophylactic need of PCN for those patient with cardiac issues and tissue implants.

Transient bacteremia can accompany procedures such as T&A, GU, GI, and vaginal deliveries

6

Penicillin G IV 10 million U contains 16 mEq of potassium - what is the concern with this potassium administration

patients with renal dysfunction

may result in neurotoxicity and hyperkalemia

7

IF PCN G is needed and the potassium content would promote a risk- what can be administered

a sodium salt of PCN G or a similar medication such as ampicillin or carbenicillin

8

anuria increases penicillin G by how many fold

10 fold

9

Slide 36

Slide 36

10

Major Resistance to PCN:

Bacterial produces B-lactamase enzymes
The hydrolyzed the B-lactam ring rendering it inactive

11

Drugs not susceptible to hydrolysis by staphylococcal penicillinases that would otherwise hydrolyze the cyclic amide bond of the B-lactam ring and render the antimicrobial inactive:

Methicillin
Oxacillin
Nafcillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin

12

Specific indications for these drugs are infections caused by staphylococci known to produce the staphylococcal penicillinases enzyme:

Methicillin
Oxacillin
Nafcillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin

13

what is nafcillin used for

Nafcillin can penetrate the CNS sufficient enough to treat staphylococcal meningitis

14

Extensive renal excretion for what three drugs

Methicillin
Oxacillin
cloxacillin

15

High dose Oxacillin therapy has been associated with

hepatitis

16

what can accompany Methicillin administration:

hemorrhagic cystitis and an allergic interstitial nephritis (hematuria, proteinuria)

17

what two drugs have superseded methicillin

oxacillin and nafcillin

18

what is the advantage of high dose therapy of nafcillin for patients with renal impairment

80% is excreted in the bile

19

unlike methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin are relative stable in an acidic medium and adequately works in what form

PO form

20

what two drugs are available as PO medications and may be preferable over oxacillin and nafcillin d/t its ability to produce higher blood levels

cloxacillin and dicloxacillin

21

2nd generation PCN

ampicillin, amoxicillin and carbenicillin

22

2nd generation PCN- ampicillin, amoxicillin and carbenicillin. bactericidal against what bacteria?

Bactericidal against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria

23

what generation of abx provide wider range of activity than other PCNs

ampicillin, amoxicillin and carbenicillin 2nd gen

24

which drugs are not effective against most staphylococcal infections

2nd generation PCN
ampicillin, amoxicillin and carbenicillin

25

which drug has a broader ranger than PCN G

ampicillin

26

what does ampicillin cover

pneumocci, meningococci, gonococci, and various streptococci

27

what gram negative bacilli does ampicillin cover

Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli

28

is ampicillin well absorbed in the GI

Yes

29

in the first 6 hours of a PO dose of ampicillin how much is excreted unchanged by the kidneys

50%

30

ampicillin is among PCN's associated with the highest incidence of ""This"" which typically appears 7-10dyas after initiation therapy

skin rash