Flashcards in Passmed Deck (46):
Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with small cell lung cancer:
SIADH, leading to fluid retention and euvolaemic hyponatraemia.
ACTH production, leading to excess cortisol production, causing Cushing's syndrome.
Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with squamous cell lung cancer:
Raised parathyroid hormone, leading to hypercalcaemia
Raised thyroid hormone
Transient side effects of opioid:
Persistent side effects of opioid:
Oncological emergency associated with lung cancer:
Superior vena cava obstruction
Treatment for SVC obstruction
Steroid (e.g. dexamethasone) to dampen the inflammatory response to the tumour.
Symptoms of SVC obstruction
Raised ICP: headache, visual disturbances
Distended forehead veins
Swelling of face
Dyspnoea (most common)
Pemberton sign (cyanosis and dyspnoea on raising arms into air)
Tumour marker for ovarian cancer
Tumour marker for pancreatic cancer
Tumour marker for breast cancer
Tumour marker for prostate cancer
Tumour marker for hepatocellular carcinoma
Tumour marker for colorectal cancer
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
Tumour marker for melanoma
Tumour marker for small cell lung carcinoma
Tumour marker for gastric cancer
Which type of lung cancer is most common in non-smokers?
Which type of lunch cancer doesn't present on bronchoscopy?
What dose of morphine should be used for breakthrough pain?
One-sixth of total daily morphine dose.
Tumour marker for germ cell tumour
Preferred opioids in patients with CKD:
Treatment for malignant spinal cord compression:
Treatment for metastatic bone pain:
How do you convert from oral morphine to subcut morphine dose?
Divide oral morphine dose by 2.
When are transdermal patches appropriate analgesia?
Stable levels of pain (i.e. not palliative cancer patient)
Not opioid naive
Which cytotoxic agent is associated with liver fibroids, myelosuppression and oral mucositis?
Which cytotoxic agent is associated with cardiomyopathy?
How do you convert from oral morphine to subcutaneous diamorphine?
Divide by 3.
So 30mg of oral morphine is equivalent to 10mg subcut diamorphine.
Treatment for nausea and vomiting in palliative care
Treatment for respiratory secretions in syringe drivers for palliative patients:
Treatment for bowel colic symptoms in syringe drivers for palliative patients:
"Bowel = butyl"
Tumour marker for teratoma
Alfa feto-protein (also useful for liver cancer)
What route provides metastatic spread to the bone from prostate/breast/bladder/lung?
Batson venous complex
Syndrome associated with hereditary NON-polyposis colorectal cancer.
What syndrome is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis?
How do you determine at what level a case of spinal cord compression is occurring?
Lesions above L1:
- Upper motor neuron signs in legs (increased tone, spasticity, reflexes)
Lesions below L1:
- Lower motor neuron signs (decreased tone, reflexes)
- Perianal numbness
Furthermore, tendon reflexes tend to be increased below the level of the lesion, and absent at the level.
Treatment for spinal cord compression
Urgent oncological assessment.
Tumour marker for medullary thyroid cancer
How do you treat nausea and vomiting in intracranial tumours?
Most common sites for bony metastasis:
In descending order:
- Long bones
Hiccups in palliative care should be treated with:
Potential side effect of cyclophosphamide:
Potential side effect of bleomycin:
Potential side effect of vincristine:
BRCA2 is associated with which cancer in men?