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Flashcards in PEARLS Deck (49):
1

Rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis

Tyrosine hydroxylase

2

Coenzyme for dopa decarboxylase

Pyridoxal phosphate

3

End-product of dopamine b oxidase

Norepinephrine

4

End-product of PNMT

Epinephrine

5

Formula for BMI

kg/m2

6

Predominant hormone in well-fed state

Insulin

7

Maintain blood glucose level during starvation

1) Glucagon 2) Epi 3) Cortisol 4) GH

8

Maintains blood glucose levels during the first 18-24 hours of starvation

Glycogenolysis

9

Maintains blood glucose levels after 24 hours of starvation

Gluconeogenesis

10

MC substrate used for gluconeogenesis

Amino acids

11

Ketogenic amino acids

1) Lysine 2) Leucine

12

Glucogenic and ketogenic

1) Phenylalanine 2) Isoleucine 3) Tyrosine 4) Tryptophan 5) Threonine

13

Major fuel for the body

Glucose

14

Used by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle during prolonged starvation

Ketone bodies

15

2 predominant ketone bodies

1) Acetoacetate 2) b-hydroxybutyrate

16

Ketone predominantly detected in urine tests

Acetoacetate

17

Organ responsible for ketogenesis

Liver

18

Immediate precursor of ketones

AcetylCoA

19

Liver cannot utilise ketone bodies due to absence of what enzyme

Glucose-6-phosphatase

20

Major fuel reserve of the body

Triglycerides in adipose tissue

21

Predominant hormone active during glycolysis

Insulin

22

Storage form of lipids in the body

Triglycerides

23

Require constant glucose supply to function

1) CNS 2) RBCs

24

Glucose transporters in brain and RBC

Glut-1 and Glut-3

25

Main glucose transporter in the brain

Glut-3

26

Glucose transporter in insulin-dependent tissues

Glut-4

27

Insulin-dependent tissues

1) Muscle 2) Adipose 3) Pancreas

28

Major metabolic intermediate that can never be used for gluconeogenesis

Acetyl CoA

29

Enzyme in liver that phosphorylates glucose for glycogen synthesis with high Km

Glucokinase

30

Net effect of insulin on the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism

Glycogen phosphorylase inhibited; glycogen synthase stimulated

31

Glycogen phosphorylase coenzyme

Pyridoxal phosphate

32

Net effect of insulin on key enzymes of fatty acid metabolism

AcetylCoA carboxylase stimulated; carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 inhibited

33

Overall effect of insulin on protein synthesis

Increase

34

Metabolic pathway in which lactate from anaerobic metabolism in the muscle is converted to glucose in the liver and transported back into lactate

Cori cycle

35

Metabolic pathway where muscles degrade amino acids for energy needs, the resulting nitrogen is transaminated to pyruvate to form alanine which is shuttled to the liver where the nitrogen enters the urea cycle and the pyruvate is used to make glucose and shunted back to muscle

Glucose-Alanine cycle

36

2 major organs responsible for gluconeogenesis

1) Liver 2) Kidneys

37

Main metabolic fuel source of the heart

Fatty acids

38

Drug used for MI which switches cardiac metabolism to glucose by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation

Trimetazidine

39

Last source of fuel during prolong starvation

Proteins and amino acids

40

Ketoacidosis with hyperglycemia

DKA

41

Ketoacidosis with hypoglycemia

1) Alcoholism 2) Prolonged starvation 3) Pregnancy and lactation

42

Provides carbon skeletons for triglyceride synthesis and nonessential amino acid synthesis

Glucose

43

Critical intermediate necessary to maintain TCA cycle activity that is usually depleted in prolonged starvation and alcohol intake

Oxaloacetate

44

Net effect of starvation on adipose tissue systems

Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase and activation of hormone sensitive lipase resulting in net release of free fatty acids

45

Predominant insulin counterregulatory hormone

Glucagon

46

Catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria to generate acetyl-CoA (which enters the citric acid cycle), and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain

Beta oxidation

47

Effect of insulin on beta oxidation

Decreases beta oxidation

48

Effect of glucagon on glycolysis

Decrease glycolysis

49

Net effect of insulin on glycolysis

Increase glycolysis