Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

POD Test 1 > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (43):
1

PC Greater than 1

Lipophilic

2

PC Less than 1

Hydrophilic

3

The Henderson Hasselbalch Equation

pH = pK + log(base)/(acid)

Base will be A- or B
Acid will be HA or BH+

4

Type of drug stored in the Prostate

Basic Drugs- ion trapping

5

Type of drugs stored in fat

lipid soluble drugs (thiopental), environmental chemicals (PCB, dioxins), anesthetics

6

Type of drugs stored in bone

Tetracyclines (calcium complexes), metals

7

Type of drugs stored in kidney

Aminoglycosides, cephalosporins

8

Components of Phase I Chemical Transformation

Oxidation, Reduction and Hydrolysis

9

Phase II Chemical Transformation

Conjugation

10

Smoking induces...

1A2 CYP family, increases metabolism of Warfarin

11

Ethanol induces...

2E1 CYP family, increases metabolism of Acetominophen

12

Reactions catalyzed by Microsomal Enzymes

Oxidation, Reduction and Cunjugation

13

Reactions catalyzed by non-microsomal enzymes

Oxidation, Reduction, Hydrolysis and Conjugation

14

Partition Coefficient

Measure of overall polarity
PC = [drug in fat]/[drug in water]

15

Efficacy

Maximal effect produced by a drug

16

Effect of Competitive Antagonists on the dose response curve

Parallel shift to the right

17

Effect of Potentiation/Synergism on the dose response curve

Parallel shift to the left

18

Effect of Non-Competitive Antagonists on the dose response curve

Decreased efficacy

19

Therapeutic Index Calculation

TI = Ld50/Ed50

You want TI to be high

20

Certain Safety Factor Calculation

= Ld1/Ed99

21

Standard Safety Margin calculation

= (Ld1-Ed99)/(Ed99 x 100)

22

Tolerance

decrease in efficacy with repeated drug administration

23

Tachyphylaxis

tolerance due to rapid, repeated administration of a drug

24

Resistance

Lack of responsiveness to drugs that normally inhibit growth or cause cell death

25

Synergism

Combination of two drugs induces an effect which is greater than the sum of the effects of the two drugs when administered individually

26

Potentiation

Administration of a drug with little or no efficacy enhances the biological response induced by an agonist... parallel shift to the left

27

CYP3A5 Polymorphism

African populations more likely to have the wild type, so drugs metabolized by CYP3A5 will be metabolized faster by Africans.

28

CYP2B6 Polymorphism

Cyclophosphamide failure

29

CYP2C9 Polymorphism

Increased risk of bleeding on Warfarin

30

CYP2C19 Polymorphism

Chinese, Japanese
Toxicity with Clopidogrel

31

CYP2D6 Polymorphism

Rapid metabolizers--> tardive dyskinesia, increased effects of narcotics

32

CYP34/5/7 Polymorphism

Alters immunosuppressive drug efficacy

33

Phase II Enzyme Polymorphisms (4)

GST- increased toxicity of alkylating agents, decreased response in breast cancer, AML

Thiopurine Methyltransferase- increased efficacy/toxicity of mercaptopurine

UDPGT- increased irinotecan toxicity, increased morphine plasma levels

COMT- enhanced levodopa effects in Parkinsonism

34

What is a PARTIAL AGONIST for seretonin?

Buspirone

35

What is an INVERSE AGONIST for AngII?

Ipsartan

36

What is an INVERSE AGONIST for H2 receptor?

Famotidine

37

Isoproterenol is an AGONIST for

B-adrenergic receptors

38

Muscarine is an AGONIST for

Acetylcholine receptors

39

Propranolol is an ANTAGONIST for

B-andrenergic receptor

40

Atropine is an ANTAGONIST for

Muscarinic Receptors

41

M1, M2 and alpha1 Receptors use and have what coupling protein, effector, substrate, second messenger and result?

Coupling Protein- Gq
Effector- Phospholipase C
Substrate- Membrane Lipids
Second Messenger- IP3 and DAG
Result- Increased Ca and Protein Kinase activity

42

Beta and D1 receptors have and use what coupling protein, effector, substrate, second messenger and result?

Coupling Protein- Gs
Effector- Adenylyl Cylcase
Substrate- ATP
Second Messenger- Increased cAMP
Result- Increased Ca and enzyme activity

43

Alpha2 and M2 receptors have and use what coupling protein, effector, substrate, second messenger and result?

Coupling Protein- Gi
Effector- Adenylyl Cyclase
Substrate- ATP
Second Messenger- Decreased cAMP
Result- Decreased Ca and enzyme activity; increased K efflux