Potpourri Flashcards Preview

Geriatrics > Potpourri > Flashcards

Flashcards in Potpourri Deck (164)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define Hypertension

BP >140/90

2

Define Isolated Systolic Hypertension

Systolic BP >140 & diastolic BP less than 90

3

Associated Conditions with HTN

MI
CVA
PVD
CHF
Renal failure

4

CV Disease Risks

Continuous & consistent HTN & independent of other risks
Each 20/10 mmHg rise doubles risk of CVD

5

Benefits of Lowering BP

Decreased risk of stroke, MI, & HF

6

Define Dementia

Cognitive impairment more common with HTN

7

Accurately Measuring BP

Cuff size
Correct inflation
Appropriate interval
Several readings

8

Possible Reasons for Secondary HTN

Sleep apnea
Drug-induced
Chronic kidney disease
Primary aldosteronism
Reno vascular disease
Chronic steroid therapy or Cushing's syndrome
Pheochromocytoma
Coarctation of the aorta
Thyroid or parathyroid disease

9

CVD Risk Factors

HTN
Cigarette smoking
Dyslipidemia
Obesity
Physical inactivity
DM
Microalbuminuria or GFR less than 60 mL/min
Age: 55+ for men, 65+ fro women
Family Hx of premature CVD (men less than 55 or women less than 65)

10

Target Organ Damage

Heart: LVH, angina, prior MI, prior coronary revascularization, CHF
CVA/TIA
Renal disease
PAD
Retinopathy

11

Aggressive BP Management

Weight loss
Sodium restriction
Treatment with all classes of drugs except hydrazine & minoxidil

12

Laboratory Tests for BP Issues

EKG
UA
CMP
Fasting lipid panel
H/H
TSH
Microalbumin

13

Lifestyle Modification for HTN

Weight reduction
Adopt DASH eating plan
Dietary sodium reduction
Physical activity
Moderation of alcohol consumption

14

Medication Classes for HTN with Heart Failure

Thiazides
Beta-blocker
ACEI
ARB
Aldosterone antagonists

15

Medication Classes for HTN with Status Post MI

Beta-blockers
ACEI
Aldosterone antagonists

16

Medications for HTN with High CAD Risk

Thiazides
Beta-blockers
ACEI
CCBs

17

Medications for HTN with DM

Thiazides
Beta-blockers
ACEI
ARB
CCB

18

Medications for HTN with Chronic Renal Disease

ACEI
ARB

19

Medications for HTN with Recurrent Stroke Prevention

Thiazides
ACEI

20

What medication class is good for gout, history of hyponatremia, & osteopenia/osteoporosis?

Thiazides

21

What medication class is good for RAD or 2nd/3rd degree heart block, atrial tachycardia, migraines, thyrotoxicosis, essential tremor, or in the perioperative period?

Beta-blockers

22

What medication class is useful in Raynaud's Syndrome?

CCBs

23

What medication class is useful in BPH?

Alpha blockers

24

What medication classes have a risk of pregnancy?

ACEI
ARBs

25

What medication classes are good for hyperkalemia?

Aldosterone antagonists
K-sparing diuretics

26

Define Orthostatic Hypotension

Drop in standing SBP >10 mmHg

27

When should you always check orthostatic BP?

When adjusting meds

28

Differential Diagnosis of Marked BP Elevations & Acute Target Organ Damage

Encephalopaty
TIA/CVA
Papilledema
MI or unstable angina
Pulmonary edema
Life-threatening arterial bleeding or aortic dissection
Renal failure

29

Define Hypertensive Emergency

Marked BP elevations & acute target organ damage

30

Define Hypertensive Urgency

Market BP elevation but NO acute target organ damage