Pulmonary Anatomy and Phys Flashcards Preview

A - Board Reveiew Misc > Pulmonary Anatomy and Phys > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Anatomy and Phys Deck (26)
1

Which part of the lungs has the least ammount of airway resistance?

The bronchioles

2

When does cartilage and goblet cells end in the lungs?

At the bronchi

3

Describe the cell type of the lungs

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells extend to beginning of terminal bronchioles and then transitions to cuboidal cells.

4

which portions of the lung conduct respiration?

Bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveoli

Mostly cuboidal until you reach the alveolae and then its squamous.

5

What are type I pneumocytes?

make up the majority of the alveoli are thin for gas transfer.

6

What are type II pneumocytes?

These are surfactant secreting cells that decrease alveolar surface tension.

7

What are club (clara) cells?

These are nonciliated low columnar cells in the lungs that secrete a component of surfactant, degrade toxins and act as reserve cells.

8

What is the equation for collapsing pressure?

Collapsing pressure = 2 (surface tension) / Radius

9

The smaller the alveoli the .... it is to collapse

The more likely it is to collapse

10

Describe the number of right and left lung lobes

Right lung has three lobes
Left lung has two lobes and a lingula.

11

Which lung is the most common site for inhaled bodies?

Right lung because the right main stem bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left.

12

Describe the relation of the pulmonary artery to the bronchus at each lung hilum

RALS
Right anterior, Left Superior.

13

While sitting upright if you aspirate a peanut where will it end up?

right inferior portion of the lower lobe

14

While sitting supine if you asprate a peanut where will it end up?

Right superior portion of the lower lobe.

15

Describe the structures that peforate the diaphragm

I Ate Ten Eggs At Noon

IVC at T8
Esophagus at T10
Descending aorta at T12 (and azygous vein/ thoracic duct)

16

What nerve levels make up the phrenic nerve?

C3,4,5

"3,4,5 keeps the diaphragm alive"

17

At what level does the common carotid Bifurcate?

Bifourcates at C4

18

At what level does the trachea bifurcate?

It Bifourcates at T4

19

At what level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate?

It bifourcates at L4

20

what is methemoglobin?

Oxidized form of Hb (Feric iron)
Does not bind O2 as readily.

Think of cyanosis and chocolate colored blood.
Nitrites and thiosulfate to treat cyanide poisoning can cause this.

21

How does one treat methemoglobinemia?

Methylene blue

22

What is carboxyhemoglobin?

Form of Hb bound to CO in place of O2

Causes decreased O2 binding capacity with left shift in Oxygen hemogobin curve.

23

What is special to how pulmonary arteries react to low O2 content?

Instead of vasodilating like the rest of the body they vasoconstrict to divert away from low O2 areas.

24

Jugular venous distention, hepatomegaly, edema

Cor pulmone
or
right sided heart failure.

25

Why does tuberculosis thrive in the apex of the lung?

Because there is a very high ventilation rate at the apex with very little perfusion.

26

What three forms is CO2 transfered in the blood as?

Most is HCO3-
Carbaminohemoglobin or HbCO2 (5%)
and
Dissolved CO2 --> 5%

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