Retinal Disorders Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Retinal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Retinal Disorders Deck (25)
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1

What type of equipment is used to examine the eye?

Indirect ophthalmoscope
Biometry
Perimetry
Fundus camera
Optical coherence tomography
Fluorescein angiography
Electrophysiology

2

Where are rods located?

Peripheral areas of the retina

3

What is a specific feature of the blind spot?

No rods or cones

4

What is electrophysiology?

Investigations recording electrical signals from the eye, optic nerve and brain in response to visual stimuli

5

What does an electroretinogram measure?

Retinal function
Records action potentials within retina

6

What does an electrooculogram measure?

Function of RPE and photoreceptors

7

What do visually evoked potentials measure?

Optic nerve function
Electrical activity in visual cortex

8

What could be the causes of sudden painless loss of vision?

Central retinal vein occlusion
Central retinal artery occlusion
Ischaemic optic neuropathy
Stroke
Vitreous haemorrhage
Retinal detachment

9

What are the causes of central retinal vein occlusion?

Hypertension
Glaucoma
Hyperviscosity
Inflammation

10

What are the causes of central retinal artery occlusion?

Emboli
Inflammation

11

What are the different types of ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Arteritic
Non arteritic

12

How do you differentiate between the different types of ischaemic optic neuropathy?

Arteritic form will have raised inflammatory markers on blood analysis

13

What are the symptoms of giant cell arteritis?

Headache
Scalp tenderness
Jaw claudication
Neck pain
Nausea
Loss of vision

14

What is the investigation for giant cell arteritis?

Temporal artery biopsy

15

What are the symptoms of optic neuritis?

Pain on eye movement
Reduced vision red desaturation

16

What is optic neuritis associated with?

Multiple sclerosis

17

What are the causes of gradual painless vision loss?

Cataract
Refractive error
Age related macular degeneration
Open angle glaucoma
Diabetic retinopathy

18

What are the risk factors for age related macular degeneration?

Age
Smoking
Poor diet

19

What are the signs of age related macular degeneration?

Distortion of vision
Struggle to read and recognise faces

20

What are the 2 types of age related macular degeneration?

Wet
Dry

21

What are the clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy?

Cotton wool spots
Exudates
Appearance of new vessels

22

What are retinal dystrophies?

Inherited conditions affecting photoreceptor function leading to progressive loss of vision

23

What are some examples of retinal dystrophies?

North Carolina macular dystrophy
Stargardt macular dystrophy
Cone dystrophy
Drug induced retinopathy

24

What type of drugs will cause retinopathy?

Anti malarials
Phenothiazines
Tamoxifen

25

How is gene therapy used in treatment of the retina?

Viral vector injected under the retina containing replacement gene into host DNA