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Flashcards in Revision Powerpoint GI Deck (58)
1

bloody diarrhoea, fragmented RBC's, undercooked hamburgers, metallic green stool cultures?

E. coli 0157

2

red macules on body on examination?

salmonella Typhi

3

playing with turtles
undercooked chicken
stale chicken?

H. salmonella enterididis

4

bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic mucosa with ulcerations on distal colon?

shigella dystenteria

5

india
severe dehydration
watery ("rice water") diarrhoea?

vibrio cholerae

6

unpasteurised/raw milk
guillian barre syndrome?

campylobacter jejuni

7

what are the symptoms of norovirus?

sudden explosive diarrhoea and vomiting
no blood

8

what is proctitis?

disease affecting only yht rectum

9

what is pancolitis?

disease involving whole olon

10

UC can sometimes spread proximal to the ileocaecal valve, true or false?

false

11

crypt abscesses in UC or crohns?

UC

12

treatment for crohns?

immunosuppression
steroids
anti-TNF
surgery not curative and can result in short gut but is sometimes used

13

treatment for UC?

5-ASA (mesalazine)
Corticosteroids
anti TNF
immunosuppresants
surgery

14

prehepatic jaundice?

unconjugated bilirubin increased
conjugatd bilirubin = normal
AST/ALT = normal
ALP/GGT = normal

15

Intrahepatic jaundice?

unconjugated bilirubin = increased
conjugated bilirubin = increased
AST/ALT = increased
ALP/GGT = normal

16

posthepatic jaundice?

unconjugated bilirubin = normal
conjugated bilirubin = increased
AST/ALT = normal
ALP/GGT = increased

17

how do conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin cause different symptoms?

unconjugated = normal urine and stool
conjugated = pale stools and dark urine

18

normal urine and stools?

prehepatic

19

dark urine, normal stools?

hepatic

20

dark urine, pale stools?

post hepatic

21

3 causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia?

haemolysis
impaired hepatic uptake (drugs, CCF)
impaired conjugation (gilbert's syndrome)`

22

2 causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia?

hepatocellular injury
cholestasis

23

what is cholelithiasis?

gallstones

24

diagnosis of gallstones?

ultrasound
dilation of the bile ducts

25

cholecystitis and biliary colic present very similarly, what is the main difference between them?

cholecystitis has an inflammatory component (raised WCC)

26

beaded appearance on ERCP?

PSC

27

PSC treatment?

liver transplant is only cure

28

chronic granulomatous inflammation of interlobular bile ducts?

PBC

29

HBsAg?

always present in infection, either acute or chronic

30

HBeAg?

hows hep virus is actively multiplying

31

Anti-HBs?

immunity to hep B
either previously infected or vaccinated

32

Anti-HBe?

immune system has responded against Hep B and virus is not replicating

33

Anti-HBc?

infected with Hep B but does not provide any protection against infection

34

HBV DNA?

amount of Hep B virus in bloodstream
indicates how actively virus is multiplying

35

vesicular rash + weight loss?

coeliac disease

36

pyoderma gangrenosum
erythema nodosum?

IBD

37

14C breath test?

bacterial overgrowth

38

Mallory's hyaline bodies?

alcoholic liver disease (acute hepatitis) and chronic active hepatitis

39

onion skinning fibrosis
beading of bile ducts?

PSC

40

Signet ring seen on biopsy?

Linitisplastica
(diffuse stomach cancer)

41

thumb printing on X ray commonly at splenic flexure?

ischaemic colitis

42

charcots triad?

fever
jaundice
abdo pain
secondary to acute cholangitis

43

causes of abdominal mass
(A CHEMICAL)

AAA
crohns
hernia
enlarged organ
malignancy
intussusception
Cyst or abscess
appendicitis
lymphadenopathy

44

Causes of bowel obstruction?
(BATH VIPS)

bolus
adhesions
tumour
hernia
volvulus
intussusception
pseudo-obstruction
stricture

45

where is the virchows node and what does it suggest if enlarged?

supra-clavicular fossa
suggests gastric cancer

46

colicky loin pain radiating to groin?

uretic colic

47

what type of mouth disease do people with crohns get?

stomatitis gangrenosum

48

iliac fossa pain, positive pregnancy test?

ectopic pregnancy

49

asterixis (liver flap)?

encephalopathy

50

leuconychia?

hypoalbuminaemia

51

koilonychias?

iron deficiency anaemia (IDA)

52

angular stomatitis?

IDA

53

buccal pigmentation?

peutz-jeghers syndrome

54

what is peutz-jaghers syndrome?

autosomal dominant
benign polyps in GI tract and hyperpigmentation on lips and oral mucosa

55

glossitis?

B12 deficiency

56

apthous ulceration?

crohns

57

craggy hepatomegaly?

liver malignancy

58

bronzed diabetic?

haemochromatosis