Revision powerpoint - Resp Flashcards Preview

Holy Grail Docs > Revision powerpoint - Resp > Flashcards

Flashcards in Revision powerpoint - Resp Deck (54)
1

common causes of epiglottitis?

haemophilus influenza
strep

2

what causes whooping cough?

bordetella pertussis

3

name 5 atypical pneumonia causes

legionella
mycoplasma
coxiella burnetti
chlamydia psittaci
chlamydia pneumonia

4

who gets mycoplasma pneumonia?

children and young adults

5

how is chlamydia pneumonia contracted?

person to person spread

6

how is legionella pneumonia confirmed?

urine antigen testing

7

what are the signs of epiglottitis?

acute onset
drooling
croup
difficulty swallowing etc

8

what are the signs of whooping cough?

paroxysmal cough
inspiratory whoop
residual cough (months)

9

how is whooping cough treated?

antibiotics if cough <21 days (most effective under 7 days)

10

describe mycobacterium tuberculosis

thick waxy coat
acid/alcohol fast bacilli

11

what organism causes bronchiolitis?

90% due to RSV

12

what virus causes croup/laryngotracheobronchitits?

parainfluenza virus (types 1 or 3)

13

influenza A causes an epidemic and influenza B causes a pandemic, true or false?

false
influenza A causes pandemic due to antigenic shift
influenza B causes epidemic due to antigenic drift

14

how is RSV/bronchiolitis confirmed?

lab confirmation via PCR

15

what are the features of croup (viral laryngotracheobronchitis)?

stridor
barking cough

16

how is croup treated?

corticosteroids + inhaled epinephrine in severe cases

17

what causes pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)?

pneumocystis jirovecci

18

how is pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) treated?

co-trimoxazole or pentamidine

19

who is more likely to contract aspergillus fumigatus and what might this cause?

immunocompromised
can cause pneumonia and invasive disease
In normal people can cause aspergilloma (chest cavitation)

20

how is aspergillus fumigatus treated?

amphotericin B, vorconazole
possible surgery

21

what might be used to diagnose TB?

ZN stain
mantoux test
gamma interferon test
sputum culture
bronchoscopy
PCR
CXR
Tuberculin test

22

how is a pneumothorax/tension pneumothorax diagnosed?

normal = CXR - expiratory film looking for lack of lung markings, check ABGs
Tension = no time for X ray

23

if pneumothorax is small and asymptomatic does it need treatment?

no

24

treatment for large, tension or trauma/ventilation induced pneumothorax?

high flow oxygen
needle decompression - large bore venflon 2nd intercostal space mid clavicular line

25

pink frothy sputum?

pulmonary oedema

26

what can cause pulmonary oedema?

usually heart failure
high altitude
ARDS
kidney failure
lung damage

27

how is pulmonary oedema diagnosed?

CXR
ECG
ECHO
pulse oximetry

28

treatment for pulmonary oedema?

treat cause
oxygen
diuretic (furosemide)
nitrates

29

what are the classifications of PE?

massive with shock or syncope
major with right ventricular dysfunction
major with normal right ventricle
minor

30

name some signs of a PE?

tachypnoea
hypotension
tachycardia
cardiorespiratory arrest
fourth heart sound
pleural rub
oligma and consolidation on CXR
sings of pleural effusion
accentuated 2nd heart sound

31

PE causes a metabolic alkalosis, true or false?

false
causes a respiratory alkalosis

32

how is each classification on PE treated?

minor = anticoagulation
Major with normal RV = anticoagulation
Major with RV dysfunction = anticoagulation + thrombolysis
Massive with shock or syncope = thrombolysis or surgery

33

name 6 effects of invading cancer

recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy
pericardium invasion
pleural effusion
pancoast tumour
distended external jugular vein
chest wall invasion

34

what may result from a tumour invading the pericardium?

breathlessness
AF
pericardial effusion
oesophageal invasion
dysphagia

35

what is a pancoast tumour?

brachial plexus invasion causing weakness and muscle wasting in the hand

36

how could a cancer cause a distended external jugular vein?

tumour may invade the SVC obstructing drainage of blood from arms and head causing it to back up into the external jugular

37

how might a distended external jugular vein present?

puffy eyelids
headache

38

which hormone does a small cell carcinoma produce?

ACTH

39

which hormone does a squamous cell carcinoma produce?

PTH

40

signs of type 1 hypersensitivity?

urticarial
angioedema
asthma
allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis
anaphylaxis

41

give some clinical examples of type 2 hypersensitivity?

blood transfusion reactions
autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
goodpastures syndromes
myasthenia gravis
gullian barre syndrome
graves disease
pemphigus vulgaris

42

what organisms cause farmer's lung?

aspergillus fumigatus
micropolyspora faeni

43

SLE is an example of a type III hypersensitivity, true or false?

true
antibodies produced against contents of cell nuclei
form complexes deposited in small vessels in skin, joints and kidney (ya girl selena)

44

what mediates type 4 hypersensitivity?

T cells
primed during initial sensitisation
activated after another exposure, recruiting other WBCs resulting in release of proteolytic enzymes and persistant inflammation

45

give an example of a type 4 hypersensitivity

sarcoidosis
TB
nickel sensitivity

46

give 8 causes of pulmonary fibrosis

bleomycin/berrylium
radiation
extrinsic allergic alveolitis
TB
Sarcoidosis
Ideopathic
Ankylosing spondylitis
asbestosis

47

ground glass appearance on CXR?

pulmonary fibrosis
respiratory distress syndrome of newborn

48

what is samter's triad?

asthma
nasal polyps
salicylate sensitivity
= aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)

49

what organism causes mucoid sputum?

chlamydia psittachi

50

where do cannonball metastases normally originate from?

kidney

51

snow storm appearance on x ray?

baritosis
silicosis

52

where in the lung to small cell and squamous cell cancers affect?

centrally

53

apical lesion?

assmann focus

54

swinging fever, copious foul smelling sputum?

lung abscess