Flashcards in Revision powerpoint - Resp Deck (54)
common causes of epiglottitis?
what causes whooping cough?
name 5 atypical pneumonia causes
who gets mycoplasma pneumonia?
children and young adults
how is chlamydia pneumonia contracted?
person to person spread
how is legionella pneumonia confirmed?
urine antigen testing
what are the signs of epiglottitis?
difficulty swallowing etc
what are the signs of whooping cough?
residual cough (months)
how is whooping cough treated?
antibiotics if cough <21 days (most effective under 7 days)
describe mycobacterium tuberculosis
thick waxy coat
acid/alcohol fast bacilli
what organism causes bronchiolitis?
90% due to RSV
what virus causes croup/laryngotracheobronchitits?
parainfluenza virus (types 1 or 3)
influenza A causes an epidemic and influenza B causes a pandemic, true or false?
influenza A causes pandemic due to antigenic shift
influenza B causes epidemic due to antigenic drift
how is RSV/bronchiolitis confirmed?
lab confirmation via PCR
what are the features of croup (viral laryngotracheobronchitis)?
how is croup treated?
corticosteroids + inhaled epinephrine in severe cases
what causes pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)?
how is pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) treated?
co-trimoxazole or pentamidine
who is more likely to contract aspergillus fumigatus and what might this cause?
can cause pneumonia and invasive disease
In normal people can cause aspergilloma (chest cavitation)
how is aspergillus fumigatus treated?
amphotericin B, vorconazole
what might be used to diagnose TB?
gamma interferon test
how is a pneumothorax/tension pneumothorax diagnosed?
normal = CXR - expiratory film looking for lack of lung markings, check ABGs
Tension = no time for X ray
if pneumothorax is small and asymptomatic does it need treatment?
treatment for large, tension or trauma/ventilation induced pneumothorax?
high flow oxygen
needle decompression - large bore venflon 2nd intercostal space mid clavicular line
pink frothy sputum?
what can cause pulmonary oedema?
usually heart failure
how is pulmonary oedema diagnosed?
treatment for pulmonary oedema?
what are the classifications of PE?
massive with shock or syncope
major with right ventricular dysfunction
major with normal right ventricle
name some signs of a PE?
fourth heart sound
oligma and consolidation on CXR
sings of pleural effusion
accentuated 2nd heart sound
PE causes a metabolic alkalosis, true or false?
causes a respiratory alkalosis
how is each classification on PE treated?
minor = anticoagulation
Major with normal RV = anticoagulation
Major with RV dysfunction = anticoagulation + thrombolysis
Massive with shock or syncope = thrombolysis or surgery
name 6 effects of invading cancer
recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy
distended external jugular vein
chest wall invasion
what may result from a tumour invading the pericardium?
what is a pancoast tumour?
brachial plexus invasion causing weakness and muscle wasting in the hand
how could a cancer cause a distended external jugular vein?
tumour may invade the SVC obstructing drainage of blood from arms and head causing it to back up into the external jugular
how might a distended external jugular vein present?
which hormone does a small cell carcinoma produce?
which hormone does a squamous cell carcinoma produce?
signs of type 1 hypersensitivity?
allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis
give some clinical examples of type 2 hypersensitivity?
blood transfusion reactions
autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
gullian barre syndrome
what organisms cause farmer's lung?
SLE is an example of a type III hypersensitivity, true or false?
antibodies produced against contents of cell nuclei
form complexes deposited in small vessels in skin, joints and kidney (ya girl selena)
what mediates type 4 hypersensitivity?
primed during initial sensitisation
activated after another exposure, recruiting other WBCs resulting in release of proteolytic enzymes and persistant inflammation
give an example of a type 4 hypersensitivity
give 8 causes of pulmonary fibrosis
extrinsic allergic alveolitis
ground glass appearance on CXR?
respiratory distress syndrome of newborn
what is samter's triad?
= aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)
what organism causes mucoid sputum?
where do cannonball metastases normally originate from?
snow storm appearance on x ray?
where in the lung to small cell and squamous cell cancers affect?