RNA Replication Mutation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RNA Replication Mutation Deck (41)
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31

DNA polymerase beta?

Repair of DNA during replication
(Eukaryotes)

(Equals with DNA polymerase II of Prokaryotes)

32

DNA polymerase gamma
?

Replication of mitochindrial DNA

33

DNA polymerase delta?

Synthesis of new DNa strand (further from primer)
- Needs PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) protein for operation

34

What is a Telomere?

Extra sequence attached to the 3´end of chromosome, rich in G-bases

(only eukaryote)

35

Containes no genetic information, so loss of these sequences during replication causes no problem?

Telomere

36

What is Telomerase?

Enzymes synthesise telomeric sequences (even more active in gametes and tumor cells -> more cell division is possible than normally)

37

What is mutation?

Changes in the structure of DNA that result in heritable changes in the coded genetic formation

38

Mutations results in?

- genetic diseases
- cancer
- evolution

39

Types of Mutations?

Type 1:
- Spontaneous
- Induced (UV/radiation/chemicals)
Type 2:
- gametic
- Somatic
Type 3:
- Chromosme
- gene/point

40

Types of Point mutations?

1. Substitution
- Missense (code other amino acid)
- Nonsense (code STOP)
- Silent or samesense (code the same amino acid)
2. Insertion
- Frame shift mutation
3. Deletion
- Frame shift mutation

41

Types of Mutagenesis?

Nitrites, nitrates, oxidative deamination, UV radiation, Timin dimers (covalent bonds between two pyrimidine base), Malignus melanoma, Repair by deletion