Role of the Lab in the Diagnosis and Management of Tumours Flashcards Preview

SSC- Biology of Cancer > Role of the Lab in the Diagnosis and Management of Tumours > Flashcards

Flashcards in Role of the Lab in the Diagnosis and Management of Tumours Deck (77)
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1

What is the gold standard in the diagnosis of cancer? 

Histology

2

What % of the work of a histology lab is convered with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer? 

70%

3

Why is it important that cancer diagnoses are made correctly? 

False positives and negatives are potentially disastarous and expensive 

4

Why might false positive cancer results be disasterous? 

A diagnosis of cancer can lead to radical treatment that is disfiguring or harmful 

5

Why can false negative cancer results be potentially disastrous? 

Because the patient will come back with more advanced tumours with a worse prognosis

6

Why are most cancers easily diagnosed histologically? 

Because most cases show histological features that are at either end of the benign-malignant spectrum 

7

What happens when cases are in the middle of the benign-malignant spectum histologically? 

It produces problems of diagnosis, and therefore management 

8

What are the categories of samples sent for cancer diagnosis? 

  • Tissue
  • Cytology

 

9

What forms of tissue sample might be received for histological testing? 

  • Diagnostic biopsy
  • Excisional specimen 

 

10

What is the main purpose of diagnostic biopsies? 

Diagnosis

11

Give two examples of methods of obtaining diagnostic biopsies

  • Incisional 
  • Needle core

 

12

What is the main purpose of obtaining excisional specimens

Done with curative intent 

13

What tissues are amenable to histological evaluation? 

All 

14

What is evaluated in cytology? 

Cells suspended in fluid

15

What are the ways of obtaining cytology samples? 

  • Exfoliation
  • Aspiration

 

16

How can cells be exfoliated? 

  • Can be shed - cells fall off a surface
  • Can be scraped off a surface

 

17

Give 4 examples of fluids that cells are shed into

  • Sputum
  • Urine
  • Pleural 
  • Ascitic

 

18

What is the problem with using cells that have been shed in diagnosis? 

Cells usually degenerate, so cancer pick-up rate is low 

19

How does the pick-up rate of cancer differ between shed cells and scraped cells? 

The scraped cells are intact and viable, so the pick-up rate is higher

20

When is an aspirate sample taken? 

When no surface is available for exfoliation 

21

Give 3 locations that an aspirate sample would be taken from

  • Accessible lump
  • Breast
  • Lymph node

 

22

How is an aspirate sample collected? al

With a needle into a lump, free hand - without guidance

23

How is an aspirate sample collected? 

Under imaging guidance

24

Give three locations where an aspirate sample would be obtained

  • Inaccessible lump
  • Liver
  • Pancreas

 

25

What is initially reported on when a histologist obtains a specimen? 

A macroscopic description of; 

  • Tumour
  • Apperance
  • Size
  • Spread

 

26

Why is tissue resected during cancer surgery inked? 

To demonstrate the excision margin when you look at it down the microscope 

27

What happens if a cancer extends to the excision margin? 

Probably need further treatment 

28

How is the tumour specimen further divided from its original form? 

Blocks are taken from areas of interest 

29

What happens to the tissue blocks cut from the specimen? 

They are impregnanted with wax to support tissue, and 4μm sections are cut 

30

How are the 4μm sections prepared for microscope visualisation? 

They are mounted on a glass slide and stained