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Flashcards in sacrum outline Deck (48):
1

the sacrum is composed of how many vertebral segments?

5 on average

2

what is the shape of the sacrum?

triangular

3

the sacrum is concave on what surface?

anterior

4

the base of the sacrum is composed of what?

S1

5

what is the shape of S1 from a superior view?

reniform

6

the vertebral body of S1 has a distinct superior epiphyseal rim and what type of center?

spongy bone center

7

the pedicle of S1 is short and extends in what direction?

extending posteriorly, with little lateral deviation

8

the superior vertebral notch of S1 is formed from the superior edge of what?

pedicle

9

laterally the pedicle of S1 is continous with what?

transverse process

10

the vertebral foramen of S1 is what shape?

triangular

11

the vertebral foramen of S1 starts the?

sacral canal

12

what is the sacral ala?

a highly modified transverse process

13

what forms the anterior two-thirds of the sacral ala?

costal element

14

what forms the posterior third of the sacral ala?

true transverse process

15

what direction does the superior articular facet of S1 face?

Back, up, medial (BUM)

16

what is variably present on the superior articular process of S1?

mamillary process

17

the spinous tubercle of S1 is found at the union of what?

right and left laminae

18

what makes up the pelvic surface division of the sacrum?

the vertebral bodies of S1-S5, separated by transverse ridges

19

the anterior sacral foramina is the exit for?

ventral primary rami of S1-S4 spinal nerves

20

the costal element of the lateral sacral mass is visible at what vertebral levels?

S1
S2
S3

21

the true transverse process of the lateral mass is visible at what vertebral levels?

S4
S5

22

the anterior protrusion of the superior epiphyseal rim and upper vertebral body of S1 is known as?

sacral promontory

23

on the dorsal surface, the posterior sacral foamina is the exit for?

dorsal primary rami of S1-S4

24

what are the three longitudinal crests on the longitudinal posterior division of the sacrum?

median crest
intermediate crest
lateral crest

25

the median sacral crest is located midsagittally and is formed by what?

fused sacral spinous processes/tubercles of S1-S4

26

the intermediate sacral crest is located just lateral to the median sacral crest and is formed by?

fused articular process of S1-S5

27

the sacral cornu of S5 is the termination of what?

the intermediate sacral crest

28

the sacral cornu is formed from?

modified inferior articular process of S5

29

what is the opening found between the right and left sacral cornuae?

sacral hiatus
(exit of the sacral canal)

30

the lateral sacral crest is located lateral to the dorsal sacral foramina and formed from?

fused transverse tubercles of S1-S5

31

what does the lateral sacral crest begin with?

sacral tubercle
and
sacral tuberosity

32

what is the sacral tubercle?

the transverse tubercle of S1

33

what is the sacral tuberosity?

the transverse tubercle of S2

34

where does the lateral crest end?

ends at the inferior sacral angle

35

what three things can be found on the lateral surface of the sacrum?

auricular surface
costal element
true transverse process

36

the auricular surface of the sacrum is the articular surface for synovial joint with what?

auricular surface of the ilium

37

the auricular surface covers most of the lateral surface through what vertebral levels?

S1-S3

38

the auricular surface is contained entirely within what part of the lateral surface of sacrum?

costal element

39

what is the triangular area covering the antero-lateral surface of S1-S3 and tapers to an end inferior of the auricular surface?

costal element

Easy one!

40

what is the part of the lateral surface located posterior to the costal element, extending from S1 to S5?

true transverse process

41

what makes up the inferior portion of the vertebral body and inferior epiphyseal rim of S5?

Apex

42

what extends from the vertebral foramen of S1 to the sacral hiatus at the level of S5?

sacral canal

43

what does the coccyx consist of?

consists of 3-5 rudimentary vertebral segments

44

each vertebrae of coccyx has how many ossification centers?

1 center of ossification

45

superior and inferior surfaces of the Co1 vertebrae may resemble what?

superior and inferior epiphysesal rims

46

Co1 has a transverse process that is small and rudimentary, projecting?

laterally

47

what part of Co1 projects superiorly and formed from rudimentary superior articular process?

coccygeal cornu

48

Co2-Co5 consists of what?

rudimentary vertebral bodies