Session 11 - Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

ESA 4 - Head and Neck > Session 11 - Pharynx and Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 11 - Pharynx and Larynx Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...
1

From where to where does the pharynx extend to, anteriorly and posteriorly?

From cranial base to inferior border of cricoid cartilage anteriorly

And Inferior border of C6 posteriorly.

2

What 3 parts is the pharynx divided into?

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx/hypopharynx

3

What type of epithelium does each part of the pharynx have?

Nasopharynx - pseudostratified ciliated with goblet cells

Oropharynx - Stratified squamous non keratinised

Laryngopharynx - Stratified sqmaous non keratinised

4

From where to where does the nasopharynx extend?

top of pharynx to bottom of soft palate/uvula.

5

Why might an infection lead to blockage of the eustachian tube? What disease does this lead to?

Lymphoid tissue forms a Tonsillar ring around the superior part of the pharynx, which aggregates to form the Adenoids. The adenoids may become swollen during infection in children

Leads to otitis media

6

From where to where does the oropharynx extend?

Soft palate to superior border of epiglottis

7

From where to where does the laryngopharynx extend?

superior border of epiglottis to inferior border of cricoid cartilage

8

9

10

11

12

what are the two muscular layers of the pharynx?

outer circular muscle layer and inner longitudinal mucle layer.

13

What is the function and action of the outer circular muscle layer of the pharynx?

During swallowing the muscle constrict to propel the bolus of food downwards. Muscles overlap each other to achieve this.

14

15

16

17

What are the 3 muscles of the inner longitudinal muscle layer? What is their function?

  • Stylopharyngeus
  • Palatopharyngeus
  • Salpingopharyngeus

 

Act to shorten and widen pharynx

18

How is the pharynx innervated? and how is this plexus formed?

Pharyngeal plexus - formed from vagus, glossopharyngeal, and sympathetic fibres from superior cervical ganglion

19

What is the motor innervation of the pharynx?

Vagus nerve

Except stylopharyngeus muscle which is glossopharyngeal nerve

20

Describe the voluntary and pharyngeal phase of swallowing

Voluntary Phase

  • Tongue moves the bolus back onto the pharynx

 

Pharyngeal Phase

Pressure receptor in palate triggers:

  1. Inhibition of breathing
  2. Raising of the larynx – Suprahyoid and Longitudinal Muscles
  3. Closure of the glottis
  4. Opening of the upper oesophageal ‘sphincter’

21

22

What are the arteries that supply the pharynx? Which artery do they originate from?

From external carotid:

  • Ascending pharyngeal
  • lingual
  • facial
  • maxillary

23

What is the venous drainage of the pharynx?

Pharyngeal venous plexus --> internal jugular vein

24

What clinical features can occur in enlarged adenoids?

  • Nasal obstruction
  • Mouth breathing, nasal speech
  • Feeding difficulty (especially infants)
  • Snoring / Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
  • Block the opening of the Eustachian Tube

25

During what ages is the maximal size for adenoids?

3-8 then regression

26

Where does the palatine tonsils lie?

lies between palatoglossal arch and palatopharyngeal arch

27

What is the lymphatic drainage of the palatine tonsils?

Jugulo-digastric (tonsillar) node

28

What is quinsy? How is it treated?

Peritonsillar abscess pushing uvula to other side

Requires drainage

29

Name the 3 regions food is likely to become stuck in the oropharynx

  • Vallecula - pouch between tongue and epiglottis
  • Base of tongue
  • Region of palatine tonsil

30

Name the 2 regions food is likely to become stuck in the layngopharynx

  • Piriform fossa - recess between central part of larynx and lateral lamina of thyroid cartilage
  • Cricopharyngeus