Signs and Symptoms of Abdominal Disorders Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Gastrointestinal System > Signs and Symptoms of Abdominal Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Signs and Symptoms of Abdominal Disorders Deck (81)
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1

What are the common presentations of abdominal disorders? 

  • Dyspepsia 
  • Abdominal pain
  • Constipation
  • Diahorrea
  • Dysphagia

 

2

What is meant by dyspepsia? 

  • Upper abdominal pain and bloating
  • Chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen 

 

3

What are the causes of dyspepsia? 

  • Chronic peptic ulcer disease 
  • GORD
  • Malignancy 
  • Functional / non-ulcer 

Some debate over this 

 

 

4

What % of dyspepsia is functional / non-ulcer? 

60%

5

What is meant by functional / non-ulcer dyspepsia? 

No functional problem found to account for symptoms 

6

When is dyspepsia classified as functional? 

When there is 3 months of dyspepsia with no structural causes found 

7

What is the course of treatment for dyspepsia? 

  • Empirical acid suppression 
  • Non invasive H-pylori testing/eradication 
  • Early endoscopy

 

8

How common is abdominal pain? 

Very common, 2% of all hospital admissions 

 

9

What must be taken into consideration when a patient presents with abdominal pain? 

That there are many causes, and it can be misleading, so we must therefore adopt a sensible approach 

10

Is abdominal pain related to the small bowel intra- or extra-peritoneal? 

Intra-peritoneal 

11

Why is it important to question what embryological division abdominal pain related to the small bowel belongs to? 

Because intra-peritoneal structures refer pain to shared areas of the abdominal wall

12

Where does the foregut refer pain to? 

Up to the 2nd part of the duodenum to the epigastric area 

13

Where does the midgut refer pain to? 

 Up to the distal third of the transverse colon to the peri-umbilical area 

14

Where does the hindgut refer pain to? 

Supra-pubic 

15

What may cause foregut pain? 

  • Ulcers 
  • Pancreatitis 
  • Gallstones 

 

16

What kind of foregut pain is produced when caused by ulcers 

Epigastric pain 

 

17

Where does epigastric pain caused by ulcers commonly occur? 

In the first part of the duodenum or lesser curve of the stomach 

18

Where does pancreatitis cause pain? 

  • Epigastric pain 
  • Back pain (retroperitoneal structure) 

 

19

Where do gallstones cause pain? 

  • Epigastric pain 
  • Can also get right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain 

 

20

What is gallstones pain sometimes referred to as? 

Colicky pain 

21

Why is referring to gallstones pain as colicky a slight misnomer? 

Because the pain is fairly constant 

22

What is midgut pain sometimes referred to as? 

'Real' colicky pain 

23

At what frequency is colicky pain in the small bowel? 

Every 2-3 minutes 

24

At what frequency is colicky pain in the large bowel? 

Every 10-15 minutes 

25

What are the symptoms of a small bowel obstruction? 

  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal distention 

 

26

What may be shown on an x-ray of a small bowel obstruction? 

  • Central abdominal distended loops
  • Circular folds extending the full width of the bowel lumen 

 

27

What is the classic midgut pain scenario? 

Appendicitis 

28

What may cause hindgut pain? 

Sigmoid volvulus 

29

What % of intestinal obstructions are due to sigmoid volvuluses? 

8%

30

What happens in a sigmoid volvulus? 

Twists in on itself or its mesentery, causing a bowel obstruction and interruption to blood supply