Special Challenges Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Special Challenges Emergencies Deck (61):
1

Physical Abuse

Defined as intentional act such as striking, hitting, or biting a child that results in injury

2

Neglect

Four times more common than physical abuse

3

Sexual Abuse

Inappropriate dressing, touching to disabled patients

4

Emotional Abuse

Children, dependent elderly, and other vulnerable people
Causes substantial emotional response in behavior in children

5

Recognizing Neglect or Abuse

Child who does not become agitated
Who does not look for parent reassurance
May cry excessively or not at all
-80% of head injuries in patients younger than 2 years is a result of abuse

6

Mongolian Spots

Lesions that resemble bruises typically on buttocks or back that present at birth

7

Benign Injuries

Coining and Cupping
-rubbing hot coins
-warm cups on skin pull out illness

8

Management of Abuse/Neglect

First priority: self safety
Second priority: provide optimal clinical care to patient
Don't make hasty assumptions
Document situation!

9

Mandatory Reporters

EMS is mandatory reporters of child abuse and neglect

10

APS

Adult Protective Services
-for neglected or abused children

11

Terminal Illness

Disease that is expected to cause death within 6 months

12

Curative Care

Continuous aggressive medical care that attempts to prolong life

13

Palliative Care

"Comfort Care"
Focus on improving the quality of the time that the patient has left

14

Hospice

Program that provides social and emotional support
May receive at home, hospital and long term care facilities

15

Surrogate-Decision Maker

Legally authorized to make health care decisions for that patient when patient is not able to to make them for them self

16

Communicable Diseases

Medical conditions that can be passed from one person to another by variety of modes
-gloves and eye wear mandatory

17

Tracheostomy Tubes

Long term replacement for ET tubes
-passes below the thyroid cartilage into the trachea
-needs humidified and warmed air
-Obturator: rounded tip that extends out the bottom end of the trachea
-follow DOPE acronym for trouble shooting trach tubes
-have patient that deep breath or preoxygenate before entering suction into tube

18

Fenestrated

Teach tube that has holes present in outer and inner canulas

19

False Lumen

If suction catheter meets resistance outside of cannula it may be displaced

20

Stoma

Incision from which a trach tube has been insrted

21

Diaphragm/Phrenic Nerve stimulators

New technology that stimulates the process of breathing for a patient without an external device

22

Asynchrony

May occur when breathing is stimulated and is being ventilated by EMS

23

VAD's

Ventricular Assist Device
-receive devices while awaiting a heart transplant
-connected to either both or right or left ventricles

24

Apnea Monitors

Infants with high risk of SIDS have one
-usually have ECG tracings

25

Long Term Vascular Access Device

May have central lines in place
-many are maintained with chemical heparin
-obtain med control before using one
-remove 10ml of blood before flushing to remove heparin

26

Insulin pump

Titration insluin into the body for diabetics

27

Tube Feeding

Placed into small intestine or into stomach

28

Colostomy

Directs large intestine out through an opening in the wall called a stoma
-stool and intestinal liquid is drained from the intestines

29

Urostomy

Part of urinary system is diverted through an opening in the anterior abdominal wall, called a stoma

30

Urinary Catheterization

Not able to void urine on their own
-mask, goggles and gloves
-keep catheter very sterile!
-coat catheter with gel substance
-hold penis at ninety degree angle
-when urine present, insert 1cm more or until it reaches Y of tubing
-Inflate ballon and gently pull back until feeling resistance

31

Dialysis

Replacement for failed or failing kidneys
Hemodialysis: removes blood from patient through fistula which is connected between artery and vein. Blood exits, cleaned, and returned to body
Peritoneal Dilaysis: abdominal dialysis and can be performed in the patients home

32

IABP

Intraday-Aortic Balloon Pump
Decrease the cardiac workload and perfusion in patients with cardiogenic Shock, structural abnormalities in heart, MI or following cardiac surgery
-cylindrical tube inserted through femoral artery and placed in aorta
-During diastole the balloon inflates, pushing blood forward into systemic circulation.
-During systole the balloon deflates, creating brief vacuum and decreasing cardiac afterload
-Improves circulation, decreases oxygen demand

33

Developmental Disability

Severe chronic conditions due to mental or physical impairments

34

Developmental Delay

Infant or child's failure to reach a particular development milestone by the expected time

35

Down Syndrome

Inherited genetic disorder that is responsible for the delay, cognitive impairment, and unusual features.
-flattened face and nose
-also known as "trisomy 21"
-missing a pair or chromosomes compared to normal 23 chromosomes
-shorter life expectancy
-may function relatively independently

36

Mental Retardation

Intellectual disability and cognitive disorder that appears during childhood and lacks adaptive behavior
-IQ below 70 is classified

37

Autism

Developmental delay that is still being diagnosed
-Be mindful of actions
-Excessive stimuli can cause aggressive behavior

38

Conversion Disorder

"Hysteria"
Blindness, paralysis, and impaired speech can occur as a physical manifestation

39

Hearing Impairment

Acoustic Neuroma: tumor of ear
Conductive Hearing Loss: inability of sound to travel from outer to inner ear
Sensorineural Hearing Loss: problems with uptake of sound through tiny hairs within the ear and conduction of nerve impulses
CAPD: auditory deficit that is difficult interpreting speech, when other background noises are present
Auditory Neuropathy: normal function of ear, but can not pick up Nerve impulses

40

Visual Impairment

Retinopathy: diseases of the retina and the eye that do not involve inflammation
-high levels of oxygen to infants can cause retinopathy
-Amblyopia: partial or complete vision loss of one eye
-Hyperopia: frsightedness
-Myopia: Nearsightedness

41

Speech Impairment

Phonological Process Disorders: impact a persons ability to produce sounds that combine into spoken words
Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder: delayed language developmental milestones, with person using irrelevany phrases out of context

42

Dysarthria

Failure of neurotransmission between nervous system and muscles of the face and throat that causes impaired speech

43

Apraxia

Can not apply object to use

44

Spastic Parylsis

When muscles if affected areas of the body become flaccid or fail to move because of continued spasm

45

Autonomic Dysreflexia

When the quad or parapalegic can not use the bathroom, constipated, pain, triggers a large dump of catecholamines and causes massive vasoconstriction above level of injury and pressure can be dangerously high

46

Arthritis

Inflammation of joints between bones that can cause pain, swelling, redness, stiffness and discomfort

47

Osteoarthritis

Caused by cartilage loss or abnormal bone growth,usually in response to trauma or excess wear and tear

48

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Systemic inflammatory disease that affects joints and other body systems
Consider pain medications

49

Cancer

Excessive growth in the body and division of cells within the body

50

Cerebral Palsy

Neurological disorder that results from injury to brain tissue during brain development
-Produces altered skeletal muscle function or contraction
-Common to affect only one region of the body
-sever: seizures, inability to swallow, tremors, loss of bladder control, joint contractions, impaired respiratory function

51

Spastic Tetraplegia

When CP affects all four limbs

52

Cystic Fibrosis

Increased production of mucus in the lungs and digestive systems
-Can lose a lot of salt
-Nausea, constipation, diarrhea, pancreatitis, anorexia, and distended abdomen
-Take antibiotics

53

MS

Multiple Sclerosis
Degenerative disorder of the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons of the brain

54

Muscular Dystrophy

Slow, progressive degeneration of muscle fibers
-Careful positioning
-Supportive Treatment
-Assisted Ventilation

55

DMD

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Enlarged heart muscle

56

Myasthenia Crisis

Respiratory failure due to respiratory muscle fatigue
-may occur if muscles damaged by infection
-infection, stress, side effects of medications can trigger a crisis
-Contraindicated for ZOFRAN because of issues with Long QT syndrome

57

Myasthenia Gravis

Autoimmune disorder that suddenly or gradual impacts neuromuscular transmission, causing muscles to weaken and tire easily

58

Poliomyelitis

Viral infection with significant morbidity
-Humans only host to carry polio
-Headache, sore throat, fever, malaise, and vomiting
-Report back pain, diarrhea, leg pain, continued fever, and muscle discomfort

59

Postpolio Syndrome

Persons who survive an initial attack from polio virus
-Muscle weakness, muscle atrophy
-Treatment remains supportive

60

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Autoimmune disorder characterized by widespread inflammation of many body tissues
Antibodies in body attack normal body cells such as kidneys, muscles, joints, digestive tract, skin
-Swelling and discomfort, chest pain, fever, sensitivity to light, swollen lymph nodes, mouth sores.

61

Traumatic Brain Injury

Deformity of brain from injury that can cause short term and long term impairments.
-Seizures, emotional, behavioral, sensory complications can be present